Modern History for SSC CGL 2018: 5 June

Modern History for SSC CGL 2018: 5 June

Modern History for SSC CGL 2018: 5 June

Q1. The Government of India Act , 1919 is also known as 
भारत सरकार अधिनियम, 1919 को __________नाम से भी जाना जाता है.
(a) Morley-Minto Reforms  / मोर्ले-मिंटो सुधार
(b) Montague-Chelmsford Reforms / मोंटेग-चेम्सफोर्ड सुधार
(c) Regulating Act / अधिनियम विनियमन
(d) Pitts India Act / पिट्स इंडिया एक्ट
Ans.(b)
Sol.The Government of India act 1919 was passed on the basis of recommendations of Lord Chelmsford and Samuel Montagu to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India. This act covered 10 years from 1919 to 1929.

Q2. Who is called the ‘Father of the Indian National Congress’?
कौन 'भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस का जनक' कहलाता है?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi / महात्मा गांधी
(b) A. O. Hume / ए ओ ह्यूम
(c) Lokmanya Tilak / लोकमान्य तिलक
(d) Surendra Nath Banerjee / सुरेंद्र नाथ बनर्जी
Ans.(b)
Sol.Allan Octavian Hume, was a member of the Imperial Civil Service (later the Indian Civil Service), a political reformer, ornithologist and botanist who worked in British India. He was one of the founders of the Indian National Congress, a political party that was later to lead in the Indian independence movement.The Indian National Congress conducted its first session in Bombay from 28–31 December 1885 at the initiative of retired Civil service officer Allan Octavian Hume. 

Q3. Who founded the Home Rule League in Madras in 1916 A.D.?
1916 ईसवी में मद्रास में होम रूल लीग की स्थापना किसने की?
(a) Bipin Chandra Pal /बिपिन चन्द्र पाल
(b) Arvind Ghosh / अरविन्द घोष
(c) Lokmanya Tilak / लोकमान्य  तिलक
(d) Mrs. Annie Besant / श्रीमती ऐनी बेसेंट
Ans.(d)
Sol.Tilak founded the first home rule league at the Bombay provincial congress at Belgaum in April,1916. then after this Annie Besant founded second league at Adyar Madras in September 1916.Despite the banner of All India Home Rule League, there were two leagues one by Tilak that worked in Bombay Presidency, Carnatic, Central provinces and Berar. The Annie Besant’s league worked for rest of India.


Q4. Who was the advocate at the famous INA Trials?
प्रसिद्ध आईएनए सुनवाई का वकील कौन था?
(a) Bhulabhai Desai / भुलाभाई देसाई
(b) Abul Kalam Azad / अबुल कलाम आज़ाद
(c) Subhash Chandra Bose / सुभाष चंद्र बोस
(d) C. Rajagopalachari / सी राजगोपालाचारी
Ans.(a)
Sol.INA soldiers trial. When three captured Indian National Army (INA) officers, Shahnawaz Khan, Prem Kumar Sahgal and Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon were put on trial for treason, the Congress formed a Defence committee composed of 17 advocates including Bhulabhai Desai.The INA Defence Committee, later the INA Defence and Relief Committee, was a committee established by the Indian National Congress in 1945 to defend those officers of the Indian National Army who were to be charged during the INA trials.The committee declared the formation of the Congress' defence team for the INA and included famous lawyers of the time, including Bhulabhai Desai, Asaf Ali, Jawaharlal Nehru.


Q5. In which session of Indian National Congress the tricolor flag was unfurled for the first time?
भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस के किस सत्र में पहली बार तिरंगा ध्वज फहराया गया था?
(a) Calcutta Session, 1920 / कलकत्ता सत्र, 19 20
(b) Annual Session of Congress at Nagpur, 1920 / 1920 में नागपुर में कांग्रेस का वार्षिक सत्र
(c) Lahore Congress, 1929 / लाहौर कांग्रेस, 1929
(d) Haripura Congress Conference, 1938 / हरिपुरा कांग्रेस सम्मेलन, 1938
Ans.(c)
Sol.On the midnight of December 31, 1929 and January 1, 1930, the deadline of the Nehru Committee report expired and Jawahar Lal Nehru unfurled the Flag of India’s independence on the bank of River Ravi in Lahore.


Q6. Which among the following regulations made English as a medium of education compulsory in government aided schools and colleges?
निम्नलिखित अधिनियमों में से किसने सरकार द्वारा सहायता प्राप्त स्कूलों और कॉलेजों में अनिवार्य शिक्षा के माध्यम के रूप में अंग्रेजी बनाई है?
(a) Macaulay Minute, 1835 / मैकॉले मिनट, 1835
(b) Educational Despatch, 1854 / एजुकेशनल डिस्पैच, 1854
(c) Pitts India Act, 1784 / पिट्स इंडिया एक्ट, 1784
(d) Regulating Act, 1773 /रेगुलेटिंग एक्ट , 1773
Ans.(a)
Sol.Macaulay wrote his famous minute on Feb. 2, 1835 in which he vehemently criticized almost everything Indian: astronomy, culture, history, philosophy, religion etc., and praised everything western. On this basis he advocated the national system of education for India which could best serve the interest of the British Empire. His minutes was accepted and Lord William Bentinck issued his proclamation in march 1935 which set at rest all the controversies and led to the formulation of a policy which became the corner stone of all educational programmes during the British period in India.He argued that Western learning was superior, and currently could only be taught through the medium of English. There was therefore a need to produce - by English-language higher education -" a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in intellect" who could in their turn develop the tools to transmit Western learning in the vernacular languages of India.

Q7. Who spoke: “At the stroke of midnight, when the world sleeps, India awakes to life and freedom”?
यह किसने कहा है कि "आधी रात के स्ट्रोक पर, जब दुनिया सोती है, भारत जीवन और आजादी के लिए जागता है"?
(a) Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose / नेताजी सुभाष चन्द्र बोस
(b) Mahatma Gandhi / महात्मा गाँधी
(c) Jawaharlal Nehru / जवाहरलाल नेहरु
(d) C. Rajagopalachari / सी. राजगोपालचारी 
Ans.(C)
Sol.On the midnight of August 15, 1947, India’s first prime minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru addressed the nation with powerful lines “At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom.” The speech “Tryst with destiny” which was delivered in Parliament, Nehru laid the roadmap for future and highlighted the pain people have endured for long to get freedom.   

Q8. Who started the first English newspaper in India? 
भारत में पहला अंग्रेजी समाचार पत्र किसने शुरू किया?
(a) Bal Gangadhar Tilak / बाल गंगाधर तिलक
(b) Raja Rammohan Roy / रजा राममोहन रॉय
(c) J. A. Hickey / जे. ए. हिक्की
(d) Lord William Bentinck / लार्ड विलियम बेंटिंक
Ans.(C)
Sol.Hickey's Bengal Gazette was an English newspaper published from Kolkata (then Calcutta), India. It was the first major newspaper in India, started in 1780. It was published for two years. Founded by James Augustus Hicky, a highly eccentric Irishman who had previously spent two years in Jail for debt.


Q9. The Ahmedabad Satyagraha of Gandhi was directed against 
गांधी के अहमदाबाद सत्याग्रह के खिलाफ निर्देशित किया गया था:
(a) British government officials / ब्रिटिश सरकारी अधिकारी
(b) Mill owners / मिल मालिक
(c) Money lenders  / जमींदार
(d) Indian government officials / भारतीय सरकारी अधिकारी 
Ans.(b)
Sol.Ahmedabad Mill Strike, 1918 was one of the initial movements led by Gandhi in the beginning of 20th century after his return from South Africa.In February March 1918, there was a situation of conflict between the Gujarat Mill owners and workers on the question of Plague Bonus of 1917. The Mill Owners wanted to withdraw the bonus whole the workers demanded a 50% wage hike. The Mill Owners were willing to give only 20% wage hike.

Q10. Which of the following Acts gave representation to the Indians for the first time in legislation?
भारतीयों को विधि निर्माण में पहली बार निम्नलिखित में से किस अधिनियम द्वारा प्रतिनिधित्व मिला?
(a) Indian Councils Act, 1909 / भारतीय परिषद अधिनियम, 19 09
(b) Indian Councils Act, 1919 / भारतीय परिषद अधिनियम, 1919
(c) Government of India Act, 1919 / भारत सरकार अधिनियम, 1919
(d) Government of India Act, 1935 / भारत सरकार अधिनियम, 1935
Ans.(a)
Sol.The Indian Councils Act 1909 or Morley-Minto Reforms or Minto-Morley Reforms was passed by British Parliament in 1909 in an attempt to widen the scope of legislative councils, placate the demands of moderates in Indian National Congress and to increase the participation of Indians the governance. This act got royal assent on 25 May 1909. 

Q11. In which year did the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre take place?
जलियांवाला बाग नरसंहार किस वर्ष में हुआ था?
(a) 1912
(b) 1909
(c) 1919
(d) 1920
Ans.(c)
Sol.The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919.

Q12. Muslim League was founded in the year
मुस्लिम लीग किस वर्ष में स्थापित की गई थी ?
(a) 1900
(b) 1905
(c) 1906
(d) 1902
Ans.(c)
Sol.Sir Syed had founded, in 1886, the Muhammadan Educational Conference, but a self-imposed ban prevented it from discussing politics. In December 1906 conference in Dhaka, attended by 3,000 delegates, the conference removed the ban and adopted a resolution to form an All Indian Muslim League political party.

Q13. Which year did Bankim Chandra Chatopadhyay write Anandmath?
बंकिमचंद्र चट्टोपाध्याय ने किस वर्ष आनंदमथ लिखा था?
(a) 1858
(b) 1892
(c) 1882
(d) None of these / इनमे से कोई नहीं
Ans.(c)
Sol.Anandamath is a Bengali novel, written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee and published in 1882. Set in the background of the Sannyasi Rebellion in the late 18th century, it is considered one of the most important novels in the history of Bengali and Indian literature.

Q14. In which year Salt Satyagraha took place?
किस वर्ष में नमक सत्याग्रह हुआ था?
(a) 1929
(b) 1930
(c) 1931
(d) 1932
Ans.(b)
Sol.The Salt March, which took place from March to April 1930 in India, was an act of civil disobedience led by Mahatma Gandhi to protest British rule in India.

Q15. Cabinet Mission came to India in the year
भारत में कैबिनेट मिशन किस वर्ष लाया गया था?
(a) 1946
(b) 1945
(c) 1942
(d) 1940
Ans.(a)
Sol.The mission arrived on March 24, 1946. Cabinet Mission was composed of three Cabinet Ministers of England: Sir Pethick Lawrence (Secretary of State for India). Sir Stafford Cripps(President of the Board of Trade), Alexander( the First Lord of the Admiralty)
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