Top News

25 April 2018 - Daily Current Affairs

World Malaria Day being observed today

  • The ‘World Malaria Day. being observed every year across the world on 25th April to create awareness among the people about this vector-borne disease.
  • This year’s global theme for World Malaria Day is "Ready to beat malaria".
  • This theme projects the collective energy and commitment of the global malaria community in uniting around the common goal of a world free of malaria.
  • According to World Health Organisation(WHO) around four lakhs, people die of malaria every year in the world.
  • In India, every year close to one million people suffers from this disease.
Note: Malaria caused by the falciparum parasite is the most serious and can lead to breathing problems, liver failure, and eventual death.

Honors & Awards

Egyptian photographer Md. Abu Zeid wins UNESCO press freedom prize

  • A jury of United Nations' cultural agency has awarded the UNESCO World Press Freedom Prize to an imprisoned Egyptian photographer Mahmoud Abu Zeid (popularly known as Shawkan).
  • Md. Zeid has been in jail since he was arrested in Cairo in August 2013 for covering a demonstration at Rabaa Al-Adawiya Square.
  • In 2013, Zeid took photographs of protests against General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi and his work has been published in Time, The Sun, Die Zeit, Bild and on the BBC website.
  • The prize (worth USD 45,000) will be awarded on the occasion of World Press Freedom Day (3rd May).
  • The UNESCO World Press Freedom Prize honors a person, organization or institution that has made an outstanding contribution to the defence and/or promotion of press freedom anywhere in the world.
  • The award recognizes the promotion of press freedom especially in the face of danger. 
Year Recipient Country
2018 Mahmoud Abu Zeid Egypt
2017 Dawit Isaak Sweden/Eritrea
2016 Khadija Ismayilova Azerbaijan

National Affairs

Foreigners can now travel to Nagaland, Mizoram, Manipur without a permit

  • The Union Home Ministry has decided to relax the six-decade-old Protected Area Permit regime from Nagaland, Mizoram, and Manipur for five years to promote tourism.
  • Now, Foreign tourists (except those from Pakistan, China, and Afghanistan) will be allowed to visit some of the most pristine locations in the country without a special permit.
  • Under the Foreigners (Protected Areas) Order, 1958, all areas falling between the Inner line and the International Border of some states were declared as protected areas.
Note: Currently, the protected areas are whole of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Sikkim, besides parts of Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand and Jammu and Kashmir.

M-Awas app for allotment of GPRA through ASA launched

  • The Minister of State for Housing and Urban Affairs (I/C) Hardeep Puri has launched a Mobile App “m-Awas” for allotment of Government accommodations in General Pool Residential Accommodation (GPRA) in Delhi under the control of the Directorate of Estates.
  • The application has been developed by NIC (National Informatics Centre).
  • A total number of 61,317 residential accommodations of various types are available in Delhi which are allotted to the eligible Central Government employees through Automated System of Allotment (ASA), by using login Id and password.

Sunderban reserve forest to get Ramsar site status

  • The West Bengal government has given its approval to State Forest Department to apply for coveted Ramsar Site recognition under Ramsar Convention to Sunderban Reserve Forest.
  • If the proposal is accepted and Indian Sunderbans declared a Ramsar site, it will be the third prestigious citation for the mangrove delta.
  • Currently, there are 26 sites in India recognized as Ramsar wetland sites of international importance.
  • The world’s largest contiguous mangrove ecosystem stretches over 10,200 sq km across India (4,263 sq km) and Bangladesh (5,937 sq km).
  • The Bangladesh section of the Sunderbans is already listed on the Ramsar site and is a World Heritage site.
What is Ramsar convention?
  • The Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar Convention) is an inter-governmental treaty that provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources.

India and World Bank signs agreement to improve the rural road network in MP

  • The Government of India, Madhya Pradesh state govt. and the World Bank have signed USD 210 million loan agreement for the Madhya Pradesh Rural Connectivity Project.
  • The Project will cover 10,510 km stretch of rural roads in Madhya Pradesh that fall under the Chief Minister’s Gram Sadak Yojana (CMGSY) program.
  • It will improve the durability, resilience, and safety of the gravel surfaced rural roads and enhance the capacity of the state to manage its rural roads network.

Sagar Kavach: Coastal security exercise held in Kerala

  • The Coastal security exercise ‘Sagar Kavach’ held along Kerala to strengthen and assess the loopholes in the coastal security mechanism.
  • The two-day exercise saw the participation of Indian Coast Guard (ICG), Indian Navy, Coastal Police and Marine Enforcement wing and various other security stakeholders.
  • The objective of the exercise was to provide seamless seaward cover along coast by all concerned security agencies from coastal belt area to limit of territorial waters.
  • The exercise assessed effectiveness of coastal fishing community in serving as ‘eye and ears’ for early warnings of a seaward threat.


Shahzar shoots silver to open India's account at ISSF World Cup

  • Shooter Shahzar Rizvi claimed India's first medal at the ongoing World Cup organized by the International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) at Changwon, South Korea.
  • He won the silver medal in the 10 meters air pistol event on the year's second World Cup.
  • Artem Chernousov (Russia) won the gold medal and Samuil Donkov (Bulgaria) Bronze.

CM K Palaniswami presents cash prizes to TN Commonwealth Games medal winners

  • Tamil Nadu Chief Minister ‘K Palaniswami’ presented cash prizes to the sportspersons from the state who won medals in the Commonwealth Games (Gold Coast 2018) in Australia.
  • He gave cheques for one crore rupees each to table-tennis players ‘A Sharath Kamal’ and ‘G Sathiyan’.
  • Kamal and Sathiyan had won gold in the men's team event and silver in the doubles.
  • The state government also rewarded the coaches of the players with a total of 54 lakh rupees.

Quantitative Aptitude for SBI PO 2018: 25 April

Quantitative Aptitude for SBI PO 2018: 25 April

Directions (Q. 1-5): Following bar graph shows the ratio of produced to sold items. Answer the given questions based on this graph.
Quantitative Aptitude for SBI PO 2018: 25 April

1. If, in the year 2009, the total number of items sold is 870, what is the total number of items produced in that year?
      1) 3480             2) 1740             3) 2610             4) 4350             5) None of these

2. If the difference between the total number of items produced and the total number of items sold in the year 2010 is 440, what is the number of items produced in that year?
      1) 4400             2) 4440             3) 4840             4) 2240             5) None of these

3. If the number of items sold in the year 2006 is 2350 and in the year 2005 is 1980, what is the total number of items produced in the year 2005 and 2006 together?
      1) 5750             2) 5800             3) 5850             4) 5900             5) None of these

4. In which of the following years the difference between the total items produced and the total items sold is maximum?
      1) 2005             2) 2006             3) 2008             4) 2009             5) None of these

5. If the total number of items produced in the year 2010 and 2008 are 3630 and 3150 respectively, total number of items sold in the year 2008 is what percentage of the total items sold in 2010?
      1) 42.4%           2) 63.63%         3) 112%            4) 157.14%       5) None of these

6. If the average weight of three persons A, B and C is 30 kg and the average weight of other three persons C, D and E is 27 kg, what is the sum of the weight of all five persons A, B, C, D and E?
      1) 128.5 kg        2) 157 kg          3) 171 kg          4) Data inadequate   5) None of these

7. The sum of the ages of X and Y is 70 years. Twenty years ago, the age of X was five times the age of Y. What will be 140% of the difference between the ages of X and Y?
      1) 49 years        2) 98 years        3) 24.5 years     4) 28 years        5) None of these

8. A shopkeeper bought 75 kg rice at the rate of `16 per kg. He sold 35 kg of it at 20% profit and the remaining 40 kg at 15% profit. What is his total profit percentage in this transaction?
      1) 35%             2) 27.5 %          3) 30%             4) 37.5%           5) None of these

9. The sum of three numbers is 140. If the ratio of the first number to the second is 1 : 3 and that of the second to the third is 9 : 16, what is the sum of the second and the third number?
      1) 85                 2) 105               3) 115               4) 125               5) 135

10. A shopkeeper bought an item and sold it at a loss of 10%. Had he bought it for 20% less and sold it for `176 more he would have had a profit of 40%. What is the cost price of the item?
      1) `1200            2) `960              3) `840              4) `800              5) `760


  1. 1
  2. 3
  3. 4
  4. 5
  5. 2
  6. 4
  7. 4
  8. 5
  9. 4
  10. 4

English MCQ for SBI PO 2018: 25 April

English MCQ for SBI PO 2018: 25 April

Directions (Q. 1-5): Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical mistake/error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. Mark the number of that part with error as your answer. If there is ‘No error’, mark 5).
  1. 1) There cannot be any situation where / 2) somebody makes money in an asset / 3) located in India and does not pay tax / 4) either to India or to the country of his origin. / 5) No error
  2. 1) India has entered a downward spiral / 2) where the organised, productive / 3) and law abide sectors are subject to / 4) savage amounts of multiple taxes. / 5) No error
  3. 1) The bank may have followed / 2) an aggressive monetary tightening policy / 3) but its stated aim of / 4) curbing inflation have not been achieved. / 5) No error
  4. 1) Equal opportunities for advancement / 2) across the length and breadth / 3) of an organisation will / 4) keep many problems away. / 5) No error
  5. 1) A customised data science degree / 2) is yet to become / 3) a standard programme / 4) to India’s premier educational institutes. / 5) No error

Directions (Q. 6-10): Rearrange the following six sentences (A), (B), (C), (D), (E) and (F)  in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below.
  • (A) The group desired to enhance the learning experience in schools with an interactive digital medium that could be used within and outside the class-room.
  • (B) Then the teacher can act on the downloaded data rather than collect it from each and every student and thereby save his time and effort.
  • (C)  Edutor, decided the group of engineers, all alumni of the Indian Institute of Technology, when they founded Edutor Technologies in August 2009.
  • (D) They can even take tests and submit them digitally using the same tablets and the teachers in turn can download the tests using the company’s cloud services.
  • (E)   With this desire they created a solution that digitises school text books and other learning material so that students no longer need to carry as many books to school and back as before, but can access their study material on their touch-screen tablets.
  • (F)   A mechanic works on motors and an accountant has his computer. Likewise, if a student has to work on a machine of device, what should it be called?

6. Which of the following sentences should be the FIRST after rearrangement?
        1) F            2) D           3) A           4) C           5) E
7. Which of the following sentences should be the THIRD after rearrangement?
        1) A           2) B           3) D           4) E           5) F
8. Which of the following sentences should be the SIXTH (LAST) after rearrangement?
        1) A           2) F            3) E           4) B           5) D
9. Which of the following sentences should be the FOURTH after rearrangement?
        1) A           2) F            3) E           4) B           5) C
10. Which of the following sentences should be the FIFTH after rearrangement?
                1) A        2) D        3) C        4) E         5) F


  1. 2; Replace ‘in’ with ‘on’
  2. 3; Replace ‘abide’ with abiding’ and ‘subject’ with ‘subjected’
  3. 4; Replace ‘have’ with ‘has’
  4. 5
  5. 4; Replace ‘to’ with ‘in’
  6. 1
  7. 1
  8. 4
  9. 3
  10. 2

Number Series for SBI PO 2018: 25 April

Number Series for SBI PO/Clerk

Directions (Q. 1-10): Find the next number in the following number series.
1.   215,    302,    517,    732,    947,    1162, ?
        1) 1372     2) 1375     3) 1377     4) 1379     5) 1381

2. 192,    292,    400,    516,    640, ?
        1) 770       2) 772       3) 774       4) 776       5) 778

3. 19,    29,    41,    55,    71, ?
        1) 89         2) 91         3) 93         4) 95         5) 97

4. 768,    512,    320,    192,    112, ?
        1) 56         2) 64         3) 72         4) 96         5) 84

5.  18,  42, 78, 132, 210, ?
                1) 310    2) 312    3) 314    4) 316    5) 318

6.  15,    115,    126,    270,    283,    479, ?
        1) 536                    2) 554                    3) 584
        4) 592                    5) None of these

7.   23,    312,    673,    1114,    1643, ?
        1) 2024                  2) 2160                  3) 2268
        4) 2304                  5) 2412

8. 6,    28,    110,    476,    2426, ?
        1) 14612                2) 14512                3) 14412
        4) 14312                5) 14212

9.  15,    57,    168,    417,    942, ?
        1) 1816                  2) 1904                  3) 2019
        4) 2146                  5) 2251

10.  12,    24,    44,    74,    116, ?
        1) 164                    2) 172                    3) 178
        4) 184                     5) 196


  1. 3
  2. 2
  3. 1
  4. 2
  5. 5
  6. 5
  7. 3
  8. 1
  9. 3
  10. 2

General Awareness for NABARD Grade-‘A’

General Awareness for NABARD Grade-‘A

1. The Union Cabinet has approved the continuation of centrally sponsored scheme for higher education called RUSA. What does letter ‘R’ denote in the term RUSA?
1) Regional
2) Rural
3) Research
4) Rashtriya
5) Rashmi
2. Who among the following will be Indian contingent’s flag-bearer at the opening ceremony of the Gold Coast 2018 Commonwealth Games?
1) PV Sindhu
2) Heena Sidhu
3) Dipa Karmakar
4) Deepa Malik
5) Saina Nehwal
3. Which state govt recently observed the martyrdom day of Shaheed-e- Azam Bhagat Singh, Shaheed Sukhdev and Shaheed Rajguru as “Youth Empowerment Day”?
1) Haryana
2) Punjab
3) Rajasthan
4) Uttar Pradesh
5) Uttarakhand
4. Elavenil Valarivan is associated with which of the following games? He won a gold medal in junior World Cup in Sydney recently.
1) Boxing
2) Javelin
3) Archery
4) Shooting
5) Wrestling
5. Who among the following has been named Chief Executive Officer of the merged entity of Idea Cellular and Vodafone?
1) Sandip Das
2) Gopal Vittal
3) Balesh Sharma
4) Kaizad Heerjee
5) Himanshu Kapania
6. Which public sector bank has been allowed by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs to amalgamate its wholly own subsidiary All Bank Finance Ltd (ABFL) with it?
1) Canara Bank
2) Dena Bank
3) Corporation Bank
4) Indian Bank
5) Allahabad Bank
7. The world’s longest sandstone cave at 24,583 metres in length has been discovered in the state of
1) Assam
2) Tripura
3) Sikkim
4) Mizoram
5) Meghalaya
8. Who among the following has been appointed by the US President Donald Trump as the new National Security Adviser?
1) John Bolton
2) Bob Corker
3) Rudy Giuliani
4) Keith Kellogg
5) Elliott Abrams
9. Which state govt has launched, NAIPUNYA RATHAM or World on Wheels, a multi- utility vehicle which aims to bring technology to the remote corners?
1) Karnataka
2) Tamil Nadu
3) Andhra Pradesh
4) Odisha
5) Punjab
10. Who among the following is the Minister of State for Home Affairs in the present Union Cabinet?
1) Prakash Javadekar
2) Hansraj Gangaram Ahir
3) Haribhai Parthibhai Chaudhary
4) Ram Kripal Yadav
5) Santosh Gangwar


  1. 4
  2. 1
  3. 2
  4. 4
  5. 3
  6. 5
  7. 5
  8. 1
  9. 3
  10. 2

General Intelligence for Railways Exam

General Intelligence for Railways Exam

1. In a family Mr Prakash has his wife and his two married brothers of whom one has two children and another has no issue. How many members are there in the family?
A) 12 members
B) 8 members
C) 6 members
D) 10 members
2. In a group of equal number of cows and herdsmen the num­ber of legs was 28 less than four times the number of heads. The number of herds­men was
A) 7
B) 28
3. If P is the husband of Q and R is the mother of S and Q, what is R to P?
A) Mother
B) Sister
C) Aunt
D) Mother-in-law
4. The average age of 19 boys in a class is 21 years. If the teacher’s age is included, the average increases to 22 years. What is the teacher’s age?
A) 39 years
B) 41 years
C) 40 years
D) 44 years
5. Hari remembers that his father’s birthday is between 13th and 16th of June, whereas his sister remembers that their father’s birthday is between 14th and 18th of June. On which day is their father’s birthday, which both agree?
A) 14th June
B) 15th June
C) 16th June
D) 17th June
6. If CAT is coded as 3120, what code number can be given to NAVIN?
A) 14122914
B) 49274654
C) 73957614
D) None of these
7. From the given alternative words, select the word which cannot be formed using the letters of the given word
8. Some letters are given with numbers from 1 to 7. Select the sequence of numbers which arranges the letters into a meaningful word.
        S  O   U    B   R   C    E
        1   2   3    4    5   6    7
A) 4216573
B) 2416537
C) 2146357
D) 2416357
9. Arrange the given words in the sequence in which they occur in the Dictionary and locate the last word.
A) Frankenstein
B) Frankincense
C) Frankalmoign
D) Frauendienst
10. If ‘MERCURY’ is written as ‘FGIECAB’ in a code, how can ‘CURE’ be written in that code?


1. B; Mr Prakash and his wife = 2
           Prakash’s two married brothers = 4
           Two children = 2
           Total members = 8
2. D; Suppose the number of cows = x
           Therefore, the number of herdsmen = x
           According to the question,
           4 × 2x – 28 = x × 2 + x × 4
          ⇒ 8x – 28 = 2x + 4x  ⇔ 8x – 6x = 28
           ∴ x = 28/2 = 14
3. D
4. B; Total age of 19 boys = 19 × 21 = 399 years
           Total age of 19 boys and teacher = 20 × 22 = 440 years
              ∴ Teacher’s age = 440 – 399 = 41 years
5. B; According to Hari, his father’s birthday may be on 14th or 15th June.
           According to Hari’s sister, their father’s birthday may be on 15th, 16th or 17th June. Common Date Þ 15th June
6. A
7. B; There is no ‘S’ letter in the keyword.
8. D
9. D
10. C

24 April 2018 - Daily Current Affairs

24 April 2018 - Daily Current Affairs

PM Modi launches Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Abhiyan at Mandla, MP

  • Today, Prime Minister Narendra Modi has launched the ‘Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Abhiyan’ at Ram Nagar in Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh.
  • The scheme focuses on training, building infrastructure and stepping up initiatives for e-governance under the e-Panchayat Mission Mode Project.
  • He also inaugurated a three-day Aadi Mahotsava program on the conservation of ancient Tribal culture and heritage.
  • Prime Minister felicitated 6 states (Sikkim, Odisha, Maharashtra, Telangana, Tripura, and Karnataka) for the Rashtriya E panchayat puruskar.

Suresh Prabhu Chairs first meeting of think tank on a framework for National Policy on E-Commerce

  • Today, the Minister of Commerce & Industry and Civil Aviation, ‘Suresh Prabhu’ has chaired the first meeting of the think tank on the Framework for National Policy on E-commerce.
  • The think tank will explore options for providing a fillip to entrepreneurship in the digital economy.
  • It will identify specific policy interventions for nurturing domestic firms and create jobs in e-commerce.
  • It will provide a credible forum for an inclusive and fact-based dialogue leading to recommendations for informed policymaking.
Note: The think tank on the Framework for National Policy on E-commerce has been established by the Department of Commerce.

AFSPA removed from Meghalaya

  • The Union Home ministry has withdrawn the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) totally from Meghalaya as well as from 8 police stations in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • The Act had been in force in Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh for almost 27 years.
  • Armed Forces (Special Powers) Acts (AFSPA), are Acts of the Parliament of India that grant special powers to the Indian Armed Forces in what each act terms "disturbed areas".

Diu Smart City becomes first to run on 100% renewable energy during daytime

  • The ‘Diu Smart City’ has become the first city in India, that runs on 100% renewable energy during the daytime.
  • Diu had been importing 73% of its power from Gujarat until last year.
  • According to Urban Affairs Ministry, the city has developed a 9-MW solar park spread over 50 hectares rocky barren land, besides installing solar panels on the rooftops on 79 government buildings, generating 1.3 MW annually.
  • Earlier, Diu offers its residents a subsidy of Rs 10, 000-50,000 for installing 1-5KW rooftop solar panels.
Note: Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.

Uttarakhand to get 1,700 crore rupees aid from ADB for Infrastructure development

  • The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has agreed to give an aid of 1,700 crore rupees (in principle) to Uttarakhand for infrastructure development and creation of sewerage treatment facilities in urban areas.
  • According to Chief Minister Trivendra Singh Rawat, 100% of the aid given by the institution will be utilized for the purpose.
Note: The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is an international development finance institution dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia and the Pacific through loans, grants, research and technical assistance to its member countries & investments in private companies.

Subsidised food grain for SC, ST, OBC hostel students: Paswan

  • According to the Union Food and Public Distribution Minister Ram Vilas Paswan, all students living in the hostels, (where two-thirds belong to SC, ST and OBC communities) will be entitled to 15 kg of food grain per month at subsidized rates.
  • The Welfare Institutions and Hostels Scheme will be rolled out at the earliest.
  • The scheme will benefit over one crore students including girls from Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, Other Backward Classes and backward from minorities.

International Affairs

Mario Abdo Benitez elected as Paraguay's president

  • Mario Abdo Benitez (46-yr) (Conservative) of Paraguay's ruling Colorado Party narrowly defeated his opponent Mr. Alegre. in the country's presidential elections.
  • The group has dominated the country's political landscape for more than 70 years.
  • Benitez vowed to focus on Paraguay's persistent poverty by stimulating foreign investment.
Note: The President of Paraguay is the head of the executive branch of the Government of Paraguay, both head of state and head of government.

Banking & Finance

IOB inks information Utility Pact with NeSL

  • The Indian Overseas Bank (IOB) entered into an agreement for information utility services with the National E-Governance Services Limited (NeSL).
  • Now, the IOB branches will be able to provide high-quality, authenticated information about debts and defaults.
  • It will have more transparency in maintaining the list of borrowers, debtors, creditors and loan defaulters.

Iran bans banks from using Cryptocurrencies

  • Iran has banned the use of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies by banks and financial institutions.
  • The ban came because "all cryptocurrencies have the capacity to be turned into a means for money-laundering and financing terrorism and in general can be turned into a means for transferring criminals' money.

Important Dates

National Panchayati Raj Diwas being observed today

  • The ‘National Panchayati Raj Diwas’ being observed on 24th April every year across India.
  • West Bengal’s Digambarpur Gram Panchayat (GP) has won the Centre’s award for the best Gram Panchayat in the country.
  • Digambarpur GP at Patharpratima block in South 24-Parganas has come up as the best out of 2.5 lakh Gram Panchayats in the country.
  • The survey was conducted by the Ministry of Panchayati Raj.
Note: This day marks the passing of the Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992 that came into force with effect from 24 April 1993.

Best-laid plans: on Turkish politics: The Hindu Editorial

Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan did not take many by surprise last week when he called presidential and parliamentary elections in June, more than a year ahead of schedule. In power since 2002 first as Prime Minister and since 2014 as the first directly elected President, he has overseen the country’s steady lurch towards right-wing authoritarianism; the snap poll could be another step in that direction. Last year he won a controversial referendumfavouring an executive presidency, and he is clearly anxious to complete the transition, as the changes only come into effect after the presidential election. Mr. Erdoğan had pulled off a slender victory in the plebiscite, though the exercise was held under a national emergency and several opposition leaders were in detention. The outcome reinforced concerns about the sagging popularity of his Justice and Development Party (AKP). The risk of Turkey’s economy overheating, besides soaring inflation, would make Mr. Erdoğan wary of leaving time for the opposition to consolidate. For now, averting a run-off would be uppermost on his mind. Observers cite recent developments as a prelude to the elections. One highlight is the alliance the AKP struck a few months back with its one-time rival, the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP). The latter’s hard line on the Kurdish question and opposition to the Western alliance — notwithstanding Turkey’s membership of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and long-standing ambition to join the European Union — are well-known. Curiously, MHP leader Devlet Bahçeli spoke about early elections just a day before Mr. Erdoğan made the actual announcement.

Best-laid plans on Turkish politics The Hindu Editorial

The pact between the two parties is emblematic of Mr. Erdoğan’s overall political shift to a hardline stance at home and in his foreign policy. Turkey’s offensive in January against a Kurdish enclave in north-west Syria tapped into a deep hostility at home against the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), an insurgency movement. Conversely, the attack on Afrin drew strong condemnation from Ankara’s NATO allies, who count on Kurdish militias in their military campaign against the Islamic State. At home, democratic space in Turkey has severely shrunk since the imposition of a national emergency and the crackdown following an unsuccessful military coup in 2016. Since then, countless critics have been detained, including journalists, and Turks are careful about voicing their opinions openly. A recent clampdown in a reputed Istanbul university over Turkey’s offensive on Afrin has raised concerns over academic freedom. The routine labelling of protesters as terrorists and communists reflects a creepingintolerance against even normal expressions of dissent. Even as he seeks to consolidate his hold on power, Mr. Erdoğan can only salvage his reputation if he starts restoring civil liberties ahead of the election.


1) Lurch
Meaning: Leave an associate or friend abruptly and without assistance or support when they are in a difficult situation.
Example: “He left you in the lurch when you needed him most”
Synonyms: Abandon, Desert
Antonyms: Help, Support
2) Authoritarianism
Meaning: The enforcement or advocacy of strict obedience to authority at the expense of personal freedom.
3) Snap
Meaning: Done or taken on the spur of the moment, unexpectedly, or without notice.
Example: “A snap decision”
4) Referendum
Meaning: A general vote by the electorate on a single political question which has been referred to them for a direct decision.
Example: “He called for a referendum on the death penalty”  
Synonyms: Vote, Ballot
5) Anxious
Meaning: Very eager or concerned to do something or for something to happen.
Example: “The company was anxious to avoid any trouble”  
Synonyms: Eager, Keen
6) Slender
Meaning: (Of something abstract) barely sufficient in amount or basis.
Example: “People of slender means”
Synonyms: Meagre, Limited
Antonyms: Considerable, Abundant
7) Plebiscite
Meaning: The direct vote of all the members of an electorate on an important public question such as a change in the constitution.
Example: “The administration will hold a plebiscite for the approval of constitutional reforms”  
Synonyms: Vote, Poll
8) Detention
Meaning: The action of detaining someone or the state of being detained in official custody.
Example: “The fifteen people arrested were still in police detention”
Synonyms: Custody, Confinement
9) Sagging
Meaning: Decline to a lower level, usually temporarily.
Example: “Exports are forging ahead while home sales sag”
Synonyms: Falter, Weaken
10) Soaring
Meaning: Increase rapidly above the usual level.
Example: “The cost of living continued to soar”  
Synonyms: Escalate, Skyrocket
11) Consolidate
Meaning: Combine (a number of things) into a single more effective or coherent whole.
Example: “All manufacturing activities have been consolidated in new premises”
Synonyms: Combine, Unite
12) Averting
Meaning: Turn away (one’s eyes or thoughts).
Example: “She averted her eyes while we made stilted conversation”  
Synonyms: Turn aside, Turn away
13) Prelude
Meaning: An action or event serving as an introduction to something more important.
Example: “A ceasefire had been agreed as a prelude to full peace negotiations”
Synonyms: Preliminary, Overture
14) Rival
Meaning: A person or thing competing with another for the same objective or for superiority in the same field of activity.
Example: “He has no serious rival for the job”  
Synonyms: Competitor, Opponent
Antonyms: Partner, Ally
15) Emblematic
Meaning: Serving as a symbol of a particular quality or concept; symbolic.
Example: “This case is emblematic of a larger problem”
Synonyms: Symbolic, Representative
Antonyms: Representational, Realistic
16) Enclave
Meaning: A place or group that is different in character from those surrounding it.
Example: “The engineering department is traditionally a male enclave”
17) Hostility
Meaning: Hostile behaviour; unfriendliness or opposition.
Example: “Their hostility to all outsiders”
Synonyms: Antagonism, Bitterness
Antonyms: Friendliness, Approval
18) Insurgency
Meaning: An active revolt or uprising.
Example: “Rebels are waging an armed insurgency to topple the monarchy”  
19) Conversely
Meaning: Introducing a statement or idea which reverses one that has just been made or referred to.
Example: “He would have preferred his wife not to work, although conversely he was also proud of what she did”  
20) Condemnation
Meaning: The expression of very strong disapproval; censure.
Example: “There was strong international condemnation of the attack”  
Synonyms: Censure, Criticism
Antonyms: Praise, Plaudits
21) Militias
Meaning: A military force that is raised from the civil population to supplement a regular army in an emergency.
Example: “Creating a militia was no answer to the army’s manpower problem”  
22) Crackdown
Meaning: A series of severe measures to restrict undesirable or illegal people or behaviour.
Example: “A crackdown on car crime”  
Synonyms: Clampdown, Elimination
23) Coup
Meaning: A sudden, violent, and illegal seizure of power from a government.
Example: “He was overthrown in an army coup”  
Synonyms: Overthrow, Takeover
Antonyms: Election
24) Detained
Meaning: Keep (someone) in official custody, typically for questioning about a crime or in a politically sensitive situation.
Example: “She was detained without trial for two years”  
25) Clampdown
Meaning: A concerted or harsh attempt to suppress something.
Example: “A clampdown on crime”  
Synonyms: Suppression, Prevention
26) Creeping
Meaning: Move slowly and carefully in order to avoid being heard or noticed.
Example: “He crept downstairs, hardly making any noise”
Synonyms: Crawl, Edge
27) Dissent
Meaning: The holding or expression of opinions at variance with those commonly or officially held.
Example: “There was no dissent from this view”  
Synonyms: Disagreement, Argument
Antonyms: Agreement, Acceptance
28) Salvage
Meaning: Retrieve or preserve (something) from potential loss or adverse circumstances.
Example: “It was the only crumb of comfort he could salvage from the ordeal”  
Synonyms: Rescue, Save
Antonyms: Retain, Conserve
29) Reputation
Meaning: A widespread belief that someone or something has a particular characteristic.
Example: “His knowledge of his subject earned him a reputation as an expert”
Synonyms: Name, Repute