Indian Freedom Movement: Indian History Study Notes

Indian Freedom Movement: Indian History Study Notes

We are providing you all some Important Events of Indian Freedom Movement which is an important topic to cover for SSC Exams. This post will be useful for the upcoming SSC CGL Exam also.

Important Events of Indian Freedom Movement

The important movements of the Gandhian phase:- 

Khilafat Movement: 

The Khilafat movement was launched as the communal movement in defense of the Turkish Khalifa and save his Empire from dismemberment by Britain and other European powers. The chief cause of the Khilafat Movement was the defeat of Turkey in the First World War. The harsh terms of the Treaty of Sevres (1920) was felt by the Muslims as a great insult to them. The Muslims in India were upset over the British attitude against Turkey and launched the Khilafat Movement. Ali brothers, Muhammad Ali, Shaukat Ali, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Dr. M. Ansari, among others, started the movement. October 17, 1919 was known as Khilafat Day when the Hindu united with Muslims in fasting and observed a hartal on that day. The Khilafat Movement merged with the Non-cooperation Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1920.

Non-cooperation Movement: 

The Indian National Congress, under the leadership of Gandhi, launched his first innovative protest, the Non-cooperation Movement on 1 August, 1920. It involved surrender of all titles, honorary offices and nominated posts in local bodies. British courts, offices and all kinds of government-run educational institutions were boycotted.

Chauri-Chaura Incident (1922): 

During the Non-cooperation Movement, being provoked by some policemen, a section of the crowd attacked them. The police opened fire. In retaliation, the entire procession killed 22 policemen and set the police station on fire. A stunned Gandhi decided to withdraw the movement.

Civil Disobedience Movement: 

Civil Disobedience Movement was launched in 1930 under Gandhi's leadership with the violation of the Salt Law after Dandi Salt March.
The Dandi march (Salt Satyagraha) started from Sabarmati Ashram and ended at Dandi (a place in Gujrat). This was followed by a lot of agitation all over the country. This angered the British government which resulted in the imprisonment of Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi. On March 1930, Gandhi signed the Gandhi-Irwin Pact with the Viceroy Lord Irwin to call off the Movement but it finally came to an end on 7th April 1934.

The Individual Satyagraha (August 1940): 

Mahatma Gandhi launched in Individual Satyagraha. It was limited, symbolic and non-violent in nature. Acharya Vinoba Bhave was the first Satyagrahi and he was sentenced to three months imprisonment. Jawaharlal Nehru was the second Satyagrahi and imprisoned for four months. The individual Satyagraha continued for nearly 15 months.

Quit India Movement: 

The Quit India Movement, also called the August Movement, launched on 8th August, 1942. It was a result of Gandhi's protest against the return of Sir Stafford Cripps. He wanted to negotiate with the British government for the independence of India through this movement. He gave slogan - 'Do or Die. On 9th August leaders of the Congress like Abul Kalam Azad, Vallabhbhai Patel, Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru were arrested. The movement can be divided into four phases :
  • In the first phase of the Quit India Movement, there were processions, strikes and demonstrations
  • The second phase of the movement saw raids on the government buildings and municipal houses. Along with this, post offices, railway stations and police stations were set on fire.
  • The third phase of Quit India movement began in September 1942. Mobs bombed police in places like Bombay, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
  • Gradually, the movement gained back its peaceful form and continued till Mahatma Gandhi was released on May, 1944. This was the fourth phase of the movement.

Some other Important Events of Indian Freedom Struggle:-

The Home Rule Movement (1916): 

The release of Tilak after 6 years of jail is Mandalay (Burma) moderated the launching of Home Rule Movement by Tilak and Mrs. Annie Besnat, both of whom decided to work in close co-operation to launch the movement to attain concessions, disillusionment with Morley - Minto Reforms and Wartime miseries.

Rowlatt Act (March 1919): 

As per this Act, any person could be arrested on the basis of suspicion. No appeal or petition could be filed against such arrests. This Act as called the Black Act and it was widely opposed.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (13 April, 1919): 

On the Baisakhi day (harvest festival), a public meeting was organized at the Jallianwala Bagh (garden) to support the Rowlatt Satyagraha. General Dyer marched in and without any warning opened fire on the crowd. According to official report 379 people were killed and 1137 wounded in the incident.

The Swaraj Party (Jan, 1923): 

The suspension of the Non Cooperation Movement led to a split within Congress in the Gaya session of the Congress in December 1922. On 1 January 1923 leaders like Motilal Nehru and Chittranjan Das formed a separate group within the Congress known as the Swaraj Party to contest the council elections and wrecked the government from within.

Simon Commission (Nov, 1927): 

Simon Commission was appointed in the chairmanship of Sir John Simon by the British Conservative government to report on the working of the Indian constitution established by the Government of India Act of 1919. All its seven members were Englishmen. As there was no Indian member in it therefore the Commission faced a lot of criticism. Lala Lajpat Rai was seriously injured in the police lathi charge in a large anti-Simon Commission demonstration on 30 October 1928 and he passed away after one month.

Poona Pact (1932): 

Poona pact was an agreement upon a joint electorate between the untouchables and the Hindus which The Poona pact took place at Yerawada jail in Pune on 24th September, 1932.

Cripps Mission (1942): 

The British Government in its continued effort to secure Indian cooperation sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India on 23 March 1942. This is known as Cripps Mission. The major political parties of the country rejected the Cripps proposals. Gandhi called Cripp's proposals as a "Post-dated Cheque".

The Cabinet Mission (1946): 

Three members of the British Cabinet - Pathick Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A. V. Alexander - were sent to India 15 March, 1946, under a historic announcement in which the right to self-determination and the framing of a Constitution for India were conceded. This is known as the Cabinet Mission.

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