1.India is the seventh largest country in the world with an area of 3287263 sq. km, which is 2.42% of world's area.

2. India is the second most populous country in the world with a population of 1,236,344,631 (approx by July 2014). Officially 1.21 billion (as of 2011 census), which is 17.44% of the world.

3.Indian subcontinent is located in the Northern and Eastern hemisphere.

4.India shares longest boundary with Bangladesh (4053 km), followed by China (3380 km), Pakisthan (2912 km), Nepal (1690 km(, Myanmar (1463 km), Bhutan (605 km) and Afghanistan (88 km).

5.In India, the Tropic of Cancer (23.5°N latitude) passes through 8 states (Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura and Mizoram).

6. Islands : Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal, Lakshadweep, Amindive and Minicoy in the Arabian Sea.

7. Indian Standard Time (IST) : The 82°30'E longitude is taken as the Standard Time Meridian of India, as it passes through middle of India (from Naini, near Allahabad).

8.The 82°30'E Meridian also dictates time in Sri Lanka and Nepal.

9.In the South, on the Eastern side, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait seperate India from Sri Lanka.

Basic Information about India

  • o Latitudinal extent - 8°4' North to 37°6' North
  • o Longitudinal extent - 68°7' East to 97° 25' East
  • o North-South extent - 3214 km
  • o East-West extent - 2933 km
  • o Land Frontiers - 15200 km
  • o Total Coastline - 7516.6 km
  • o Number of States - 29
  • o Number of Union Territories - 7

Land Neighbors : 7
  1. o Pakistan
  2. o Afghanistan
  3. o China
  4. o Nepal
  5. o Bhutan
  6. o Bangladesh 
  7. o Myanmar
o States with Longest Coastline - Gujarat
o Active Volcano - Barren Island in Andaman and Nicobar Islands
o Southern most point - Indira Point or Pigmallion point in Great Nicobar
o Southern most tip of mainland - Kanyakumari
o Northern most point - Indira Col
o Western most point - West of Ghaur Mota in Gujarat
o Eastern most point - kibithu in Arunachal Pradesh

Indian States Situated on the Border

        Country             Indian States Situated on the Boarder
  1. Pakistan         - Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir
  2. Afghanistan   - Jammu and Kashmir
  3. China             - J&K, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh
  4. Nepal             - Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Paschim Banga, Sikkim
  5. Bhutan           - Sikkim, Paschim Baga, Asom and Arunachal Pradesh
  6. Bangladesh    - Paschim Bangal, Asom, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram

Physiography Divisions of India 

  • 1. The Himalayan Range of Mountains
  • 2. The Peninsular Plateau
  • 3. The Great Plains of India
  • 4. The Coastal Plains
  • 5. The Islands of India
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