The Janapadas of Ancient History of Himachal Pradesh | हिमाचल प्रदेश का इतिहास | Download PDF

The Janapadas of Ancient History of Himachal Pradesh | हिमाचल प्रदेश का इतिहास | Download PDF

The Janapadas of Ancient History of Himachal Pradesh | हिमाचल प्रदेश का इतिहास | Download PDF

Indus valley Civilization when moved towards Gangetic plains they pushed the inhabited Proto-Australoid or Munda-speaking Kolarian people towards forest valleys and northward to Himachal valleys and these people became the earliest inhabitants to Himachal Pradesh.


First race to enter Himachal 


  • Pre-Vedic Period           - Kols/Kolis/Munda/Kolarian etc.
  • Vedic Period                  - Dasyus/Dasas/Nishads
  • Post Vedic Period         - Kinnars/Nagas/Yakshas.
  • Contemporary period   - Koli/Hali/Doms/Chanal of western Himalayas, Chumangs and Damangs of Kinnaur and Lahul-Spiti are remanants of this race. 

Second Race to Enter Himachal Pradesh

  • Mongoloids in form of Kiratas and Bhotas (Bhots)

Third Race to Enter Himachal Pradesh


  • Around 1500 BC Aryans came to India by passing Pamir region by Kashgar (Kashi) now in China to Kashmir and then into Himachal.
  • They made their settlements in Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Gharwal, Kumaon, and Nepal. Aryans organized themselves into small political units or villages leter into tribal republics (Janpadas) called themselves as Khasas/Mavanas/Mavi (means the strongest men).

Dasrajan War (Ten Kings War) ( दाशराज्ञ युद्ध )

Battle held between Aryans and Non Aryans.

Non Aryan - Shambara (had 99 forts) (Kirat Janpad)

Aryan - Devodas (Bharat Janpad) (Sage Bharadwaj and later Sage Vaishista were the advisors)

Surdas son od Devodas won the battle.

Battle went for the 40 years.

Four Famous Janapadas

  • According to Mahabharata, Aryans/Khasas organized themselves into four famous Janapadas. 
  • Panini also mentioned about these Janapadas.

  1. Audumbaras/Odambaras: 

  • Descendents of sage Vishwamitra who founded Kaushik Gorta. Satapatha Brahamana also mentioned about Audumbaras. Buddhist scholar Chandragomin in his writings named 'Vriti' also mentioned them as Shilvas (5th Century AD).
  • In 2nd century B.C. they formed separate state named 'Mitra'.
  • Famous Kings: Dharaghosha, Rudradass, Shivadass, Mahadev.

Art and Culture:


  • Coins were made of Copper and Silver 
  • Coins have been founded from Kangra,Jawalamukhi, Pathankot, Gurdaspur, Hoshiyarpur.
  • Brahmi and Kharosti scripts were used on coins.
  • Study of Coins depicts that they had trade with Taxila and Gangetic valley.
  •  The bull, the temple with a trident-axe and the figure of Vishwamitra are common motifs 

Literature Sources: 

  • Audumbaras found mention in Markandaya Purana, Vishnu Purana.
  •  Ganapatha of Panini who classifies them as being of the Rajanya class 
  • After 4th Century A.D. Audumbaras got extinct due to continuous encroachments of Gabdika from North, Madrakas from West, Sukshetra from South East and Jalandhara from South.

2. Trigartas

  • Trigarta denotes the region drained by three rivers Ravi (Purushini), Beas (Akshini), Satluj (Satudri).
  • Trigarta was founded by Susharma Chandra who was ally of Kauravas in Mahabharata and attacked Viratas king of Matasya.
  • Originally from Multan. (in 13 Century BC)
  • Trigarta was oldest of all the four janapadas.
  •  Nagarkot (Kangra fort) was the citadel of Katoch lords who ruled Trigarta for thousands of years, right from Mahabharata period till pre-independent era and Trigarta Rulers had their five divisions Katoch clan, Guleria clan, Jaswal clan Sibaia clan and Dadwal clan 
  • Famous Kings: Susharma Chandra, Bhumi Chandra (made kangra Fort)

Art and Culture:


  • Coins were Square Coins
  • Coins made up of Copper 
  • Brahmi and Kharosti scripts were used in coins.

Literature Source:

  • Mentioned in Mahabharata, Brihat-samhita, Markandaya Purana.
  • Panini mentioned Trigarta in  Ashtadhyayi.  and called it Trigarta-Shashthas (Confederation of six States) in 5th century BC.
  •  Kashika mentions the six members of this confederacy as follows: 1. Kauṇḍoparastha (कौण्डोपरस्थ) , 2. Dāṇḍakī (दाण्डकी), 3. Krauṣṭakī (क्रौष्टकी), 4. Jālamāni (जालमानि), 5. Brāhmagupta (ब्रह्मगुप्त), and 6. Jānaki (जानकी). 
  • Panini also called people of Trigarta as Ayudhijivi Sangha.

  1. Kulutas

  • Located in the upper Beas valley.
  • It was the territory of two groups of people: Kulutas and Audumbaras.
  • Bihabgmani Pal of Pal dynasty is believed to be the founder of Kuluta.
  • Old Capital: Mukarsa (Naggar) (Established by Visudh Pal)
  • Later Capital: Jagatsukh (Sultanpur) (Established by Jagat Singh)
  • Famous Kings: Veer-yash, Vijay Mitra, Chitra Verma.

Art and Culture:


  • Coins bears the name 'Vir-yasha Raja'
  • one side of coin script - Sanskrit, other side of coin script - Prakarit and Kharosti

Litetraure Source:

  • Mentioned Ramayana, Markandaya Purana, Brihat-Samhita, Vishnu Purana.
  • Vishakha Dutt in Mudrakrakshasha mentioned Kuluta as in allaince with Himalayan state.

  1. Kunindas/Kulindas

  • Lived in the area lying between Beas, Satluj and Yamuna river i.e. Kullu, Sirmaur, Shimla Hills, Ambala and Saharanpur in plains.
  • Modern periods identified as Kanets/Kunets.
  • Famous Kings:  Amoghbhuti
  • Believed to be neigbhours of Trigarta.

Art and Culture:


  • Coins bears the name Amoghbhuti (Title)
  • Coins were made up of Silver (Prakrit on front , Kharosti on back) and Copper (Brahmi Script).

Literature Source:

  • Mentioned in Mahabharata, Vishnu Purana, Markandaya Purana.
  • All members of the assembly were called as Rajas and Chief was called as Maha Raja.
  • Mahabharata mentioned Kunindas were conquered by Arjuna.
  • After 4th Century A.D. Kunindas got split into small kingdoms (1. Brahampura 2. Govisana 3. Kirtipura or Kartipura)

Post a Comment


Top Post Ad

Below Post Ad