Reading comprehension for IBPS PO/ Clerk/ SEBI/ ESIC 2018: 01 November

Reading Comprehension for IBPS PO/ Clerk

Reading Comprehension for IBPS PO/ Clerk/ SEBI/ ESIC 2018: 01 November

Directions (Q. 1-10): Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
In 1973, a Bench comprising 13 Supreme Court judges ruled by a majority that Article 368 of the Constitution “does not enable Parliament to alter the basic structure or framework of the Constitution.” The Court ruled what has come to be known as “the basic structure” doctrine — a judicial principle that the Indian Constitution has certain “basic features” that cannot be altered or destroyed through amendments by Parliament. Paramount among these are the fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution.
Only two years later, the Allahabad High Court found the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi guilty of electoral malpractices. Justice Jagmohan Lal Sinha invalidated Mrs Gandhi’s win and barred her from holding elected office for six years. The decision caused a political crisis in India that led to the imposition of the Emergency by Mrs Gandhi’s government from 1975 to 1977.
During the Emergency, Mrs Gandhi altered the election law retroactively by the 39th amendment to the Constitution. Article 329A was inserted to void the Allahabad judgment. The retroactive, undemocratic, and politically motivated legislative enactment validated an election. The amendment secured her position and prevented her removal from Indian politics. Later the enactment was successfully challenged in the light of the 1973 ruling and Article 329A was struck down. The judiciary curtailed autocratic politics — a stitch in time saved nine.
Our fundamental rights are the conscience of the Constitution. This right, and every other legal right, stemsfrom our ability to retain the integrity and the structure of our Constitution.
There is a hard-learnt, intellectual history to this legal inheritance. The principle of the basic structure of the Constitution is enshrined in Article 79 (3) of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany. The German Constitution was drafted during 1948-49, in the immediate shadow of its Nazi past. During the drafting sessions, the Weimar Constitution came under immense scrutiny by German jurists and scholars, who investigated the document at great length. The Constitution’s broad powers to suspend civil liberties, coupled with an insufficient system of checks and balances, presented a structural opportunity for Adolf Hitler to seize power and preside upon an authoritarian democracy.
1. What was the reason of imposition of Emergency by Mrs Indira Gandhi in 1975?
        1) She wanted to teach a lesson to lethargic bureaucrats and rude opposition leaders.
        2) She wanted to take revenge on an arrogant judiciary.
        3) She was afraid of imminent attack on India by its neighbouring country Pakistan.
        4) She wanted to show her power to eminent world leaders.
        5)  A political crisis caused by the decision of invalidating the decision of her win
2. What is the essence of the Article 368 of the Indian Constitution? Give your answer in the context of the passage.
        1)  Article 368 lays down the procedure for Constitutional amendment in any part of the Constitution.
        2)  Article 368 of the Constitution does not permit even parliament to change the basic features of the Indian Constitution.
        3) Article 368 is related to the imposition of emergency in case of a political crisis in India.
        4) Article 368 does not allow amendment in the Preamble of the Constitution of India.
        5) None of these
3. According to the given passage, what did Mrs Gandhi do during the Emergency?
        (A) She inserted a new article to quash the judgement which prevented her from holding elected office.
        (B) She brought about changes in electoral system.
        (C) She reversed the decision of the Allahabad High Court in her favour.
        1) Only (A) and (C)             2) Only (A) and (B)
        3) Only (B)                            4) Only (B) and (C)
        5) All (A), (B) and (C)
4. What does the author want to suggest by using the proverb “A stich in time saves nine”? Select the most appropriate option in the context of the given passage.
        1) The author wants to suggest that Mrs Gandhi was an arrogant leader and had she not been taught a lesson she would have made everybody a puppet in her hand.
        2) The author wants to suggest that the provisions of Article 368 helped save the country well in time, otherwise Mrs Gandhi could have become a Hitler of India.
        3) The author has used the proverb to express that every wrong act should be checked before it is too late.
        4) The author seems to have a literary bent of mind and to make the expression more emphatic this proverb has been used.
        5) The author seems to be anti-Gandhi in his/her approach.
5. Why is the doctrine of the ‘basic structure’ in India’s Constitution so important?
        1) Because it enshrines fundamental duties of every citizen
      2) Because this doctrine is the essence of the Indian Constitution, and can prevent anybody whatsoever from becoming an autocrat
        3) Because this doctrine allows amendment in any part of the Constitution and is hence the most important
        4) Because this doctrine can never become obsolete
        5) None of these
Directions (Q. 6-8): Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
6. Curtailed
        1) downsize           2) lengthen            3) amplify    
        4) prolong              5) extend
7. Stems
        1) branches           2) flows                  3) divides
        4) multiplies          5) arises
8. Retroactive
        1) forward             2) before                3) retrospective
        4) prior                   5) prospective
Directions (Q. 9-10): Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
9. Paramount
        1) outstanding      2) highest               3) colossus
        4) trivial                 5) eminent
10. Void
        1) bereft                 2) devoid               3) empty
          4) vacant               5) valid

Answers:

  1. 5
  2. 2
  3. 1
  4. 2
  5. 2
  6. 1
  7. 5
  8. 3
  9. 4
  10. 5
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