Some Very Important Banking Terms Defined

  1. ADR : - ADR stands for American Depository Receipt. It is like a certificate which is issued by the bank.These are related to foreign countries that are why they are also known as GDR (Global Depositary Receipt).
  2. AGM : - AGM stands for Annual General Meeting. This meeting is held by public organisations. This meeting is generally known as Annual Meeting. In this meeting, every member of the organisation participates. The purpose of this meeting is that every member who is participating in this meeting will discuss all the plans with a board of directors. Members can ask questions from them.
  3. AIRCSC :- AIRCSC stands for All India Rural Credit Survey Committee. This committee was held in 1966 by RBI. The objective of this committee is to handle, control and manage the credit needs of agriculture.
  4. AFS ;- AFS stands for Available for Sale. This is a financial term. This is used for classifying the assets.
  5. AMFI :- Association of Mutual Fund in India. This association was established in 1995. The main objective of this association is to develop the market of mutual fund in India.
  6. ASSOCHAM :- ASSOCHAM stands for Association Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India. This association was established in 1920. It is a Non – Government Organisation. The main motive of this organisation is to promote and expand the trade between Domestic and International countries and also remove the barriers to trade.
  7. ATM :- ATM stands for Automatic Teller Machine. Through ATM we can withdraw money without visiting Bank. It saves our time. But there is a limit on the amount to be withdrawn from ATM.
  8. ALM :- ALM stands for Asset-liability Management. It is basically the risk of the business and manages the Balance Sheet. So, Basically, it manages liquidity risk, currency risk, interest rate risk and foreign currency risk.
  9. BSBDA :- BSBDA stands for Basic Saving Bank Deposit Account. In this saving account, a customer can open his / her account with zero balance. There is no limit on depositing & withdrawal of money from this account. A person holding BSBDA should not have any other bank account in the same bank.
  10. BIS :- BIS stands for Bank of International Settlement. It is an International Financial Institution. It was established in 1930. It provides its banking service only to the central banks and other international organisations.
  11. BOP : - BOP stands for Balance of payment. It is also known as the balance of International Payments. All the economic activities which are held with residents of country and non-residence of the country. These transactions and activities are made by government and individual also. BOP includes all external and non-visible transaction of the country.
  12. CAD : - CAD stands for Capital Account Deficit. For calculating CAD, we have to find out the sum of all trade deficit, net income from abroad, net transfers.
CAD = Trade deficit + Net Income from Abroad + Net Transfers
  1. CAG:- CAG stands for Controller and Auditor General of India. This auditor general is appointed by the President of India. The current CAG of India is Shashi Kant Sharma. He was appointed in 2013. He is the 12th CAG of India.
  2. CAMELS:- CAMELS stands for Capital Adequacy Asset Quality, Management, Earning, Liquidity, Systems & Controls. In 1995, Federal Reserve of  India changed this abbreviation CAMEL to CAMELS.
  3. CBS:- CBS stands for Consolidated Banking Statistics. It provides its banking service only to the central banks and other international organisations.
  4. CEPA :- CEPA stands for Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement. This agreement was formed on 2009. This agreement was signed between India & South Korea.
  5. CC :- CC stands for Cash Credit. It is just like a short term loan. A businessman can take this loan to fulfil his requirements of capital. Basically it is a facility provided by a bank to withdraw an amount more than what a person holds to his credit.
  6. CD :- CD stands for Certificate Deposit. It is just like a saving account. In this, deposits are saved by the bank in lockers and the banks issue the certificate of that deposit.
  7. CECA:- CECA stands for Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement. This agreement was formed in 2006. This agreement was signed between Japan and India to promote trade.
  8. CF :- CF stands for Company Finance. It is just like the financial institution. So this institution generates the loan and provides many other credit facilities to the companies.
  9. CII :- CII stands for Confederation of Indian Industries. It was established in 1895. It is a non-government organisation. There are 8000 members in this organisation. Public and Private sectors are included in this.
  10. CP :- CP stands for Commercial Paper. It is a money market security which is sold by companies as a share or bond to recover the short term needs.
  11. CPI :- CPI stands for Consumer Price Index. This index helps to measure the changes between market goods for consumers and consumed goods by consumers.
CPI = update cost / base period cost x100
  1. CCEA :- CCEA stands for Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs. This committee takes decisions for the economic development of the country. In 2012 , Our former PM DR. Manmohan Singh took the decision to start the Scholarship scheme for SC students. So these activities help to improve the economic condition as well.
  2. CR :- CR stands for Capital Receipts. The amount received from the sale of Asset used for carrying business is known as Capital Receipt. For instance, amount released from debtors, bill receivable, sale of any fixed asset or any investment.
  3. CRR :- CRR stands for Cash Reserve Ratio. CRR maintains the liquidity of the capital. When CRR increases, money supply falls and interest rate rises and vice versa.
  4. CRAR :- CRAR stands for Capital to Risk Weighted Assets Ratio. It is also known as Capital Adequacy Ratio. It is a ratio of risk over the capital.
  5. CSIR :- CSIR stands for Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. It is a largest research and development organisation. It is established in 1942.
  6. CSO :- CSO stands for Central Statistical Organisation. This organisation is responsible for all the statistical activities in India. The basic purpose of CSO is to handle these statistical activities.
  7. CBS :- CBS stands for Core Banking Solutions. Core Banking Solution (CBS) is networking of branches, which enables Customers to operate their accounts, and avail banking services from any branch of the Bank of CBS network
  8. DBOD :- DBOD stands for Department of Banking Operations and development. This department helps to regulate and develop the commercial banks in India.
  9. DBS :- DBS stands for Department of Banking Supervision. This department supervises all the banks.
  10. DCA :- DCA stands for Department of Company Affairs. This department keeps the companies updated with all current affairs.
  11. DTC :- DTC stands for Direct Tax Code. The direct tax code replaced the existing income tax act. It reduces the scope of litigation.
  12. DCCB :- DCCB stands for District Cooperative Central Bank. This bank was established by RBI in India. These banks are established for serving in the rural areas.
  13. DCM :- The RBI executes currency management tasks through the Department of Currency Management. There are ‘currency chests’ where bank notes are stored. These chests are kept in selected banks across the country
  14. DTAA :- DTAA stands for Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement. It is an agreement which helps people (Individual) to avoid the problem of Double Payment of Tax on the same income in two different countries.
  15. DD :- DD stands for Demand Draft. It is a negotiable instrument. It is similar to Bill of Exchange. It is also known as pay to order. Demand Draft can only be made payable to a specified party.
  16. DEAF :- DEAF stands for Depositor Education and Awareness Fund. This scheme was opened by RBI in 2014 for those who open their account or FD and their families don’t know about that FD or Account and Suddenly the person dies then this Account comes under the bank and if their family member gets to know about that account then this scheme help them a lot.
  17. DDS :- DDS stands for Data Dissemination Standards. Basically, data dissemination is a method through which any statistical data or any other data can be distributed to the end users. In this, data is opened into a common format, no one can copy that data.
  18. DICGC :- DICGC stands for Deposit Insurance Credit Guarantee Corporation of India. It is basically a subsidiary of RBI. Its objective is to give a guarantee to people about their credit facilities.
  19. EEFC :- EEFC stands for Exchange Earner’s Foreign Currency. This account is for those who are foreign exchange earner. No matter who they are may be they will be individual companies etc. Basically, this is an account for maintaining the foreign currency and those people whose residence is in India can also open this Account.
  20. ECGC :- ECGC stands for Export Credit and Guarantee Corporation. It ensures the credit risk of the exporters and also gives guarantee of the payment. It covers the commercial risk in business as well as political risk. It was started to promote the export trade.
  21. ECS :- ECS stands for Electronic Clearing Scheme. It is basically an electronic fund transferring method. Under this scheme, one person can transfer his funds to another account for payment.
  22. EEA :- EEA stands for Exchange Equalization Account. It was established in 1932. It is used to manage exchange value in the international market.
  23. EPF :- EPF stands for Employees Provident Fund. This scheme was formed in 1952. Under this scheme, government starts giving fund to factory employees and many other workers. Under this scheme, employees receive many other services for free by the government.
  24. EEFC :- EEFC stands for Exchange Earner’s Foreign Currency. This is used by the authorised dealers to maintain the foreign currency in an account.
  25. ECBs :- ECBs stands for External Commercial Borrowings. This is a commercial borrowing which is used to facilitate the access to foreign money by PSUs.
  26. FIPB :- FIPB stands for Foreign Investment Promotion Board. It was recommended by FDI (foreign direct investment).
  27. FDI :- FDI stands for Foreign Direct Investment. It means the direct investment in equity shares, debentures. It is a route of foreign investment to strengthen the base of economy.
  28. FSLRC :- FSLRC stands for Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Commission. It was established by government of India in 2011. If the legislative affects the financial market then it can rewrite the legislative for maintaining the financial market.
  29. FEMA :- FEMA stands for Foreign Exchange Management Act. It was established in 1999. The main objective of this act is to promote, develop and maintain the foreign exchange market in India.
  30. FII :- FII stands for Foreign Institutional Investors. If we talk about institutional investors than these investors are those who pool money to originate loans and buy assets. Basically, these institutional investors are Banks, Insurance Companies, Mutual Funds and so on.
  31. FRBMA :- FRBMA stands for Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act. This Act is established by Parliament of India. Under this act, one can easily manage and handle the overall management of public funds and also manage and control the Budget.
  32. FTA :- FTA stands for Free trade Agreement. This agreement is signed by two countries to reduce the traffic in trading. This agreement helps to do free trade with sharing common borders. Members countries can ask for tariff in trade from non-member countries.
  33. FINO :- FINO stands for Financial Inclusion Network Operation. It is formed by ICICI bank in 2006. It works with 24 banks and various financial institutes like LIC, ICICI Prudential and so on.
  34. FCNR :- FCNR stands for Foreign Currency Non – Resident Bank. As it is clear from the name that in this one can deposit his money (foreign currency). No matter whether he is a resident or not – resident of the country.  This bank is beneficial for NRIs.
  35. EFSF :- EFSF stands for European Financial Stability Facility. It was established in 2010. This organisation was created by  the European Union.
  36. FICCI :- FICCI stands for Federation of India Chambers of Commerce & Industry. It was established in 1927. It is the oldest business organisation in India Since 1927. It is a non-profit organisation. Pankaj Patel is the current President of FICCI.
  37. FII : - FII stands for Foreign Institutional Investors. If we talk about institutional investors than this investor are those who pool money to originate loans and buy assets. Basically, these institutional investors are Banks, Insurance Companies, Mutual Funds and so on.
  38. FPI : - FPI stands for Foreign Portfolio Investment. In this type of investment, foreigners deposit their money into the bank and issue or purchase company’s stock and bond.
  39. FSLRC : - FSLRC stands for Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Commission. It was established by the government of India in 2011. If the legislative affects the financial market then it can rewrite the legislature for maintaining the financial market.
  40. GDP : - GDP stands for Gross Domestic Product. It is final value of goods & services produced in a specified period. Its growth shows the economic performance of the country.
GDP = GDP (Factor Cost) + Indirect Tax – Subsidiaries
  1. GDR ; - GDR stands for Global Depository Receipt. It is an instrument which is issued in EURO market. It is issued to raise the funds in foreign currency by an Indian company.
  2. GFD :- GFD stands for Gross Fiscal Deficit. Fiscal Deficit is to differentiate between total expense from revenue receipt and non-debt capital receipt.
Fiscal Deficit = Total Expenditure – (Revenue receipt + Non-Debt Capital Receipt)
  1. GIC :- GIC stands for General Insurance Corporation. It was formed in 1972. It was formed to control and manage the insurance sector in India.
  2. GAAR :- GAAR stands for General Anti-Avoidance Rule. This rule is meant for anti-tax avoidance in 2012. This rule was formed by our Previous Finance Minister “Pranab Mukherjee”.
  3. GPD : - GPD stands for Gross Primary Deficit. It is also known as the gross fiscal deficit. We can find out the primary deficit by using formula.
NPD = NFD – Interest Payment
  1. GIRO :- GIRO stands for Government Internal Revenue Order. It is a panel which comes under RBI. Chairman of GIRO is Umesh Bellur. It was started by RBI to centralised the bill payment system.
  2. HDFC :- HDFC stands for Housing Development Finance Corporation. It was established in 1977. Its motto is “With you right through”. It provides loans for housing in India.
  3. HFT :- HFT stands for Held For Trading. It is an asset which is purchased with the mean to take short-term gain from it. So it is also known as Short-term marketable security.
  4. IBS :- IBS stands for International Banking Statistics. This service has two purposes. First is to provide guidelines for the reporting data to the reporting countries and second is to give the detail of current country practices of reported data.
  5. ICAR :- ICAR stands for Indian Council Agricultural Research. It was established in 1929 and its motto is agrisearch with a human touch. ICAR is helpful for agricultural study because it is the head of an agricultural department in India.
  6. ICICI :- ICICI stands for Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India. It was established in 1994. If we observe this bank from assets’ view then it is a 2nd largest bank in India and by Market Capitalisation view, it is 3rd largest in India. This bank has a very large network throughout the world.
  7. ICMR :- ICMR stands for Indian Council of Medical Research. This research is one of the oldest basis of other medical research in India. It was established by the Indian government in India for the welfare of India and to expand the research centre.
  8. IDBI : - IDBI stands for Industrial Development Bank of India. It is basically a subsidiary of (RBI) Reserve Bank. So it is managed and controlled by RBI.
  9. IFC :- IFC stands for International Finance Corporation. It was established in 1956. This finance corporation helps the private sectors and many other developing countries in the form of money. There are 184 countries that are joined with IFC.
  10. ITEs :- ITEs stands for Intra-Group Transaction and Exposures. These exposures have their complete access to insolvency and liquidity.
  11. IFCI : - IFCI stands for Industrial Financial Corporation of India. This is a financial institute set up by the government in 1948. Its main objective is to provide long and medium term loans to their customers.
  12. IIP : - IIP stands for Index of Industrial Production. This index shows the growth of Industrial unit and also shows the economy condition. IIP is controlled by CSO (Central Statistical Organisation). CSO publishes the IIP on monthly basis.
  13. IMF : - IMF stands for International Monetary Fund. It was established in 1945. It is an International Financial Institution. Its main purpose to maintain the foreign currency in the market.
  14. IRBI : - IRBI stands for Industrial Reconstruction Bank of India. It was established in 1985. It provides the credit facilities to the small & medium sectors. IRBI has the power to take steps to remove the industrial sickness.
  15. ISDA :- ISDA stands for International Swaps & Derivatives Association. It was established in 1985. It is a trade association. It notices the derivative transactions. So for notifying the derivative transaction they make ISDA master agreement. ISDA also reduce the credit risk with the transparency in trade.
  16. ISIC :- ISIC stands for International Standards Industrial Classification. It does classification of all economic activities for productive activities. So it provides the collection of statistics on these activities.
  17. ISO :- ISO stands for International Standards Organization. It was established in 1947. It is a non-government organisation with 162 members. It represents the national standards organisation.
  18. LBS :- LBS stands for Locational Banking Statistics. It was formed in 1970. It shows the growth of EURO currency market and it also shows the breakdown. It helps in International Banking Business.
  19. LIBOR :- LIBOR stands for London Interbank Offer Rate. This rate is accepted by the bank at the time of borrowing funds. It is also known as British Banker Association LIBOR or Trade mark bbalibor.
  20. LERMS :- LERMS stands for Liberalised Exchange Rate Management System. This system helps to exchange the currency or to control or manage the exchange rate system.
  21. LIC :- LIC stands for Life Insurance Company of India. It was founded in 1956. It is an investment company whose headquarter is in Mumbai. When LIC comes into the existence, large number of small companies merged in LIC.
  22. LCR :- LCR stands for Liquidity Coverage Ratio.
LCR = HQ LAS / Net cash outflows
  1. LRMT :- LRMT stands for Liquidity Risk monitoring Tools. This tool helps to monitor the liquidity of risk and it comes in BASEL III.
  2. LAF :- LAF stands for Liquidity Adjustment Facility. It is a policy which allows banks to borrow money through repurchase agreements. It fulfills the requirement of SLR / CRR.
  3. MCA :- MCA stands for Ministry of Company Affairs. This Affair is responsible for the regulations of various sectors. The current minister of this is Arun Jaitely.
  4. MSF :- MSF stands for Marginal Standing Facility. This facility helps various banks to borrow money from RBI (Reserve Bank of India) in emergency Situation.
  5. MIBOR :- MIBOR stands for Mumbai Inter Bank Offered Rate. It was established in 1998.
  6. MIS :- MIS stands for Management Information System. This system is meant for measuring the strengths and weaknesses of the company. This system is just like the planning tool of the company.
  7. MMSE :- MMSE stands for Minimum Mean Squared Errors. Itwas formed to decrease the errors. It is basically an estimation method which helps to decrease the error of mean squared.
  8. NABARD :- NABARD stands for National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development. It was established in 1982. Its chairman is Dr. Harsh Kumar Bhanwala. This bank is for agricultural development.
  9. NASSCOM :- NASSCOM stands for National Association of Software and Services Companies. It was established in 1988. It is a non profit organization with 1500 + members. Its president is R. Chandrasekhar.
  10. NCTC :- NCTC stands for National Counter Terrorism Centre. It was formed by Indian government after Mumbai attack in 2008. It is a part of IB (Intelligence Bureau). It is meant for controlling and handling the terrorism.
  11. NBFCs :- NBFCs stands for Non Banking Finance Companies. It is basically a company which act as a financial institute.
  12. NBC :- NBC stands for Non Banking Companies. It is basically a company which act as a financial institute.
  13. NEFT :- NEFT stands for National Electronic Fund Transfer. It is very good electronic fund transfer system. It was started in India in 2005. Banks  provides this facility to its customers to transfer the fund with proper security. The transfer cannot exceed 2.5 lakhs.
  14. NBFC :- NBFC stands for Non Banking Financial Companies. In this, there is no interference of government and bank as well and there is no need of banking license.
  15. NEER :- NEER stands for Nominal Effective Exchange Rate. This rate denotes the change between the amount of currency. Basically in this we just compare the currency of one country with other.
  16. NFA :- NFA stands for Net Foreign Assets. This asset is equal to balance of payment.
NFA = Current account + Valuation Effect.
  1. NSFR :- NSFR stands for Net Stable Funding Ratio. This was established before the crisis of 2007 -2008.
NSFR = Available amount of stable funding / Required amount of stable funding >100%
  1. NGO :- NGO stands for Non Government Organisation. These are Non – Profit Organization. Many countries grouped together and work for non – profit activity. In these activities government cannot take part.
  2. NHB :- NHB stands on National Housing Bank. It was established in 1988 by RBI under National Housing Bank act 1987. It is a financial institute for housing. It provides the house loan to the needy.
  3. NSG ;- NSG stands for Nuclear Supplier Group. In this group, there are seven countries’ government which act like participants and this group works to control the expert of those equipment, which are used to manufacture nuclear weapons.
  4. NPA :- NPA stands for Non Performing Assets. It is used by those financial institutes that are in default due to loan. Basically when the borrower failed to do payment with in 90 days then he is considered as NPA.
  5. NSC :- NSC stands for National Statistical Commission. It was established by government of India in 2006. Its objective is to handle or manage the problems which occur by statistical agencies at the time of collection of data.
  6. NSSF :- NSSF stands for National Small Savings Fund. This was established by government in 1999. Its main objective is to spool all the small resources together and make things simple for those customers who have small savings or household savings.
  7. OD :- OD stands for Overdraft. It is a facility which is provided by the bank to companies. In this facility, companies can withdraw an amount more than their available balance in their accounts. So this facility is known as overdraft.
  8. ODA :- ODA stands for Official Development Assistance. This is formed by DAC (Development Assistance Committee) to measure aid . Here aid is transfer of resources from one place to another.
  9. OMO :- OMO stands for Open Market operations. This process is for maintaining the liquidity in the currency. In this central bank can buy or sell bonds in the open market.
  10. PACS :- PACS stands on Primary Agriculture Credit Societies. This Society was established or formed by RBI in India to deal with Customers at a particular level (Gram Panchayat & village level). It is a credit institute.
  11. PDAI :- PDAI stands for Primary Dealers Association of India. This association was formed by PD (Primary Dealers) under RBI. It represents those market practices which are suitable for market and develop healthy market.
  12. PDO :- PDO stands for Public Debt Office. It is a debt strategy for ministry of finance.
  13. PIO :- PIO stands for Persons of Indian Origin. It is just like an identification only for the Persons of Indian Origin. It is given to those who have passport of a country except Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Nepal, Sri lanka, Pakistan.
  14. PO :- PO stands for Principal Office.
  15. PRB :- PRB stands for Primary Revenue Balance. This balance comes from revenue deficit and interest payment.
PRB = Revenue Deficit – Interest Payment
  1. PSE :- PSE stands for Public Sector Enterprises. Those enterprises which are owned, controlled, managed by State and Central government are known as Public Sector Enterprises.
  2. PUC :- PUC stands for Paid Up capital. Paid-up capital is the amount of money a company has received from shareholders in exchange for shares of stock. Paid-up capital is only created when a company sells its shares on the primary market directly to investors.
  3. PPP :- PPP stands for Public Private Partnership. It is an agreement held between Public & Private sectors because it is a partnership So it cover the long term risk. Risk is shared by different sectors.
  4. QFI :- QFI stands for  Qualified Foreign Investors. Through this, investors one can invest in Indian Securities. QFI made investment in equity share, Debt securities and so on.
  5. RD :- RD stands for Revenue Deficit. In simple words, increase in expenditure over receipt is called Revenue Deficit.
  1. RDBMS :- RDBMS stands on Rational Database Management. It is a part of (DBMS) Database Management System. To make data reliable we use Normalization, Primary, Foreign key.
  2. RTGS :- RTGS stands for Real Time Gross Settlement System. It is a fund transfer system. It is used for transferring the fund electronically. RTGS is done when the amount is more than 2 to 5 lakhs.
  3. RE :-  Stands for Revenue Expenditure. It is an expense for short period and this expense is also recurring in nature. In simple words, any expenditure which directly helps us in earning revenue is called Revenue Expenditure.
  4. REC :- REc stands for Rural Electrification Corporation. It was established in 1969. Its chairman is Rajiv Sharma. Its objective is to provide financial assistance to electricity and promote the rural electrification projects.
  5. REER :- REER stands for Real Effective Exchange Rate. It is a index in which they measure or relate the strength of currency with other currencies.
REER = ER (Price level in Country A / Price level in country B)
  1. RIDF :- RIDF stands for Rural Infrastructure Development Fund. This scheme came into the existence under NABARD bank to correct the rural development. Under this scheme, they workout to improve the rural infrastructure like bridges, roads, education and so on.
  2. ROC :- ROC stands for Registrars of Companies. It is formed in 1956 by government of India. It handles or manages the company's registration.
  3. RR:-  stands for Revenue Receipt. It is an amount received by selling the assets.
  4. RRB :- RRB stands for  Regional Rural Bank. This bank provides the facilities to rural areas. They also provide the locker facilities and debit cards facilities to rural areas.
  5. RTP :- RTP stands for Reserve Tranche Position. RTP is a difference between member quota & IMFs. It deals in country’s foreign exchange reserve.
  6. RWA :- RWA stands for Risk Weighted Asset. It means to examine the shortage of bank’s asset. Here asset contains fund like Cash, Loan and other assets credit equivalent to the amount is known as Risk weight.
  7. SAS :- SAS stands for Statistical Analysis System. It is a software developed by SAS institute in 1976. This software was developed for making the analysis practice better.
  8. SCARDB :- SCARDB stands for State Cooperative Agriculture & Rural Development Bank. This scheme came into the existence to raise the sources of state develop bank.
  9. SWIFT :- SWIFT stands for Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication. It is established in 1973. It provide service to many financial Institutes. They provide the secure environment through their software “SWIFT CODE” to do financial transactions.
  10. SCB :- SCB stands for State Cooperative Bank. There are 39 Cooperative Bank \. It is a part of scheduled banks. In cooperative banks, there are urban cooper & state cooperative bank.
  11. SCB :- SCB stands for Scheduled Commercial Bank. Scheduled bank comes under RBI. Private, foreign and nationalised bank come under the scheduled bank. Those banks which do not come under these banks known as a non-scheduled bank.
  12. SDDS :- SDDS stands for Special Data Dissemination Standards. It is an (IMF) International Monetary Fund. It has 65 member-countries. It guides those countries.
  13. SDR :- SDR stands for Special Drawing Rights. It was created by (IMF) International Monetary Fund in 1969. It is known as Basket of National Currencies.  In this basket, there are four currencies; pound, yen, euro, US dollar. This basket altered in every five years.
  14. SEBI :- SEBI stands for Securities and Exchange Board of India. It was established in 1992 by the government of India. It deals in securities. So basically it handles the security market.
  15. SIFI :- SIFI stands for Systemically Important Financial Intermediaries. This institute is a financial institute. This type of institution helps in the time of financial crisis.
  16. SEBs :- SEBs stands for State Electricity Board. As it name clears that electricity board is divided state wise. Every state has its own electricity board. The duty of this board is to check out the supply of electricity.
  17. SGSY:-   Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar yojana. This yojana came into the  Existence in 1999 by Indian government. The reason behind this yojana was to provide the income to poor and needy people of the country.
  18. SHGs :- SHGs stands for Self Help Group. This group is started by some person. In this group, some persons contribute their money and save them mutually and then lend to the members of the group.
  19. SIDBI :- SIDBI stands for Small Industries Development Bank of India. It was set under the act of parliament in 1989 and its objective is to promote and develop the small enterprises.
  20. SIDC:-  State Industrial Development corporation. This was established by Indian government for developing large industries.
  21. SJSRY :- SJSRY stands for Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rojgar Yojna. It was established in 1997 in India. This yojana is for those who live below the poverty line.  BPLs are provided employment.
  22. SLR :-     Statutory liquidity Ratio. It is for calculating the ratio b/w total                   
  Demand and liability. This ratio is mainly used at the time of Inflation.
         SLR  Rate =    (liquid assets/demand + time liability)*100%
  1. SMG :- SMG stands for Standing Monitoring Group. SMG has a number of members, who have access to all standards which are under development.
  2. SNA :- SNA stands for System National Accounts. As it is related to figures so it helps us to control the economic activities of the country.
  3. SRWTO :- SRWTO stands for Small Road & Water Transport Operators. It is a socio – economic activity. This is for providing the credit facilities to the people for road transport & water transport.
  4. SSI:-  SSI stands for Small Scale Industries.In this, investment does not exceed Rs. one crore.
  5. STRIPS :- STRIPS :- stands for Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal of Securities. These securities are a kind of financial institute & this institute is created for giving the separate securities to the treasury.
  6. T-Bill: -   stands for Treasury bills. In business, there are two ways to fix the receipt and expenditure so treasury bill for the short term and bond is for the long term. Treasury bill is for 1 year.
  7. TARC:-  Tax Administration Reform Commission. It is a committee which is appointed by the government of India. The purpose of this committee is for reviewing the public tax administration system.
  8. TC:- Stands for Temporary Change. It means the changes are not fixed. Means the changes made by us can be easily changed back into the original.
  9. TT:-  Stands for Telegraphic Transfer. Means to transfer the funds from one end to another electronically.
  10. TAPI:-   Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India pipeline. This is also Known as a trans-Afghanistan pipeline. It is a pipeline of natural gas.    This pipeline is developed by Asian development bank.
  11. TFTS:-  Trade for Trade Segments. In this type of segments if you buy some share then you have to pay whole amount immediately and at the time of selling of that share, they have to show that share in Demat a/c.  
  12. TIEA:-   stands for Tax Information Exchange Agreements. It is used for the facility of exchange of information for criminal and tax investigation.
  13. UCB :- UCB stands for Urban Cooperative Bank. UCB are those cooperative banks which are established in Urban Area are called Urban Cooperative Bank. There is no proper and clear-cut definition of this.
  14. UCN :- UCN stands for Uniform Code Number. There is no such information. It is a code which is provided by RBI to all banks and their Regional Branches. This code is provided into two parts, Part I and II. In part one, there is a six digit code and in Part II there is seven digit code.
  15. UNICO :- UNICO stands for Umbrella Organisation for Large Cooperative Banks in Europe. As we know that there are a number of UCBs (Urban Cooperative Banks) but with the time passage the strength of these banks goes down.
  16. UNDP :- UNDP stands for United Nations Development Programme. It was formed in 1965. Its objective is to give knowledge, resources and many other services to the developing countries. It provides all these services at the time of crisis for poverty reduction, HIV / AIDS and many other things.
  17. UNIDO: -  stands for United Nations Industrial Development Organization. This organisation works for the developing countries as we know that in developing countries there is very less and short range of industries so we import good but to overcome this problem, UNIDO was established. Its main objectives are to increase the industrialisation  in developing countries as well.
  18. UNME :- UNME stands for Urban Non-Manual Workers.  These workers are those people who live in the urban area don’t work annually or with hands.
  19. UTI: -  stands for the Unit trust of India. It deals with mutual funds so it is now famous with the name of UTI mutual funds. It is a financial institution of India. UTI stakes are divided in as :- our largest public sectors like SBI, LIC, BOB, PNB, holding the 18.5% stake of UTI and similarly TRP group also hold 26% stake of UTI AMC (assets management company Ltd.)

  1. VC :-   stands for Venture Capital. In any business, there are many options of taking financial help such as through long from the bank, the loan from other institutes and so on. But if an entrepreneur wants to start up a new business then he chooses the option of Venture Capital. Venture Capital is also a type of loan but the difference b/w loan and venture capital in that loan are paid back by repaying with interest and another hand.  In the case of venture capital the entrepreneur have to issue private share instead of money.  
  2. WPI : - stands for Wholesale Price Index.  For measuring the ratio of inflation we have two methods. 1) WPI, 2) PPI
WPI- used in India and PPI means Producer Price Index. Basically used in the US.   
The main purpose of WPI is to measure and control the supply and demand as well and also analyse the condition of microeconomics and macroeconomics.
  1. WTO: - WTO stands for World Trade Organization which is an intergovernmental organisation. This organisation deals with international trade. It comes into the existence in 1995 and replaces the (GPTI) general agreement on tariffs and trade. On 24 November 2016 one of their meeting the members of WTO discussed that why there is need to support Developing countries in future to continue trade.
  2. YOY: - YOY stands for Year on Year. As with the seasonal change in every business than the P&L also vary. So to comparing these changes with the same year period is known as Year on Year.
  3. YTM:- YTM stands for Yield Maturity. If some one has any bond until maturity than they receive some annual return which is known as YTM. We can calculate YTM as:-  
YTM = time period√face value /present value .
  1. ZTC:- ZTC stands for Zonal Training Center. It is basically a training centre of  RBI. This Training centre for the staff members only. RBI have 4 training centres in total in different cities.

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