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Vocabulary from Newspaper Articles

The boycott ban: on Maharashtra's law against social boycott

Maharashtra’s law criminalizing social ostracism is a template for other States (THE HINDU)

Maharashtra’s new law prohibiting the social boycott of individuals, families or any community by informal village councils is a step in the right direction, given the pervasive nature of the problem. The progressive legislation, which received Presidential assent recently and was gazetted earlier this month, targets the pernicious practice of informal caste panchayats or dominant sections using ostracism as a means of enforcing social conformity.The Maharashtra Protection of People from Social Boycott (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2016, may serve as a template for similar legislation in other States. The Act lists over a dozen types of actions that may amount to ‘social boycott’, which has been made a criminal offence punishable with imprisonment up to three years or a fine of ₹1 lakh or both. The practices it prohibits range from preventing the performance of a social or religious custom, denial of the right to perform funerals or marriages, cutting off someone’s social or commercial ties to preventing access to educational or medical institutions or community halls and public facilities, or any form of social ostracism on any ground. The law recognizes the human rights dimension to issues of social boycott, as well as the varied forms in which it occurs in a caste-based society. Its progressive sweep takes into account discrimination on the basis of morality, social acceptance, political inclination, sexuality, which it prohibits. It even makes it an offence to create cultural obstacles by forcing people to wear a particular type of clothing or use a particular language.

This is not the first law of its type. Bombay enacted a law against excommunication in 1949, but it was struck down by the Supreme Court in 1962 after the Dawoodi Bohra community successfully argued that it violated the community’s constitutional right to manage its own religious affairs. One hopes the latest Act will not be vulnerable to legal challenge. Article 17 of the Constitution and the Protection of Civil Rights Act outlaw untouchability in all its forms, but these are legal protections intended for the Scheduled Castes. In reality, members of various castes and communities also require such protection from informal village councils and gatherings of elders who draw on their own notions of conformity, community discipline, morality and social mores to issue diktats to the village or the community to cut off ties with supposedly offending persons and families. The case of a mountaineer from Raigad is somewhat notorious. He had conquered Mt. Everest but could not escape a social boycott in his village because his wife wore jeans and did not wear a mangalsutra. It is not a proud moment for a country when special legislation is required to prohibit social discrimination, ostracism and practices repugnant to human dignity. Yet, given the prevailing circumstances, any legislative assault on abhorrent social practices ought to be welcomed.

Learn Vocabulary from Newspaper Articles (THE HINDU)

1) Ostracism (noun) (समाज से निकालना ) : os-truh-siz-um
Meaning - exclusion from a society or group.
Synonyms - banishment, rejection, repudiation, boycott
Antonyms 
-  Inclusion, redemption, admittance 
Example -
 AIDS victims often experience social ostracism and discrimination.

2) Repugnant  (noun)  (प्रतिकूल):   ri-puhg-nunt
Meaning -
 repulsive or offensive
Synonyms:   in conflict with, contrary to, opposed to.
Antonyms - Agreeable,  harmonious, accordance
Example -Because of your repugnant behaviour, I no longer want to be friends with you.
3) Abhorrent (adjective)(घिनौना): ab-hor-rent
Meaning - causing or deserving strong dislike or hatred

Synonyms -
 hateful, repellent, offensive.
Antonyms - Beautiful, pleasant, good
Example -As I looked around the filthy apartment, I had to wonder who could live in such abhorrent conditions.
4) Diktat (noun)(फरमान ): dik-taht
Meaning - an order or decree imposed by someone in power without popular consent.
Synonyms -   bill, regulation, decree.
Example -
The company president issued a diktat that employees may not wear jeans to work.
5) Outlaw (verb) (प्रतिबंध, निषेध): aaut-law
Meaning - to make something illegal.
Synonyms - ban, prohibit, forbid.
Antonyms - legalise , decriminalise , permit
Example -
 In my opinion, the music of Britney Spears should be outlawed because of its negative influence on the art world.

6) Pervasive (adjective)(व्यापक):    per-vey-siv
Meaning - capable of affecting or influencing everything
Synonyms -  prevalent, common, widespread.Antonyms - limited, narrow, corrective
Example -
Voters are concerned about the pervasive rate of unemployment that is harming both the rich and the poor.
7) Notion (noun) ( धारणा):  noh-shun
Meaning -
an inkling to do something
Synonyms -  idea/thought, belief, concept.
Antonyms - Need, fact, truth
Example - When Rahul realised he would not receive many votes, he dropped the notion of entering the student council race.
8) Assault (noun)(हमला,आलोचना, निंदा,): ah-sawlt
Meaning - a violent p
hysical or verbal attack
Synonyms - criticism, censure, denunciation.
Antonyms - Defend, protect, guard
Example -He was arrested and charged with assault after getting into a fight at a bar.

9) Strike down (phrasal verb)  
(रद्द करना (एक कानून या विनियमन) ):   Meaning - (of a court) to decide that a law or rule is illegal and should be ignored
Synonyms - abolish, annul, nullify  (a law or regulation).
Antonyms - Validate, regulate, establish
Example: A law that was later struck down by the U.S. Supreme Court as unconstitutional
10) Mores (noun) (आचार-विचार ):  mo-resMeaning - rules and traditions of community
Synonyms - customs, traditions, practices.
Antonyms -  Bad manners, impropriety
Example - Social mores of the area insisted that men and women who are coming here should wear something on their head. 

Now Assume the article above as a Reading Comprehension and try to answer the following questions-
  • Why Supreme Court struck down the law of similar kind enacted by Bombay in 1949 ?
  • Which issues are aimed to address by this law ?

We have given below some words from the same article. Try to make sentences with these words.
  • Inclination
  • Morality
  • Sweep
  • Notorious
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