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In this article we will discuss about the sex determination in human beings. This is an important topic in biology and questions are frequently asked from this topic.

Sex Determination:

  • In human beings we determine the sex with the help of the sex chromosome i.e. with the help of X and Y chromosome.
  • In human beings 46 chromosomes are found out of which 44 are found in 22 pairs called autosomes and other two chromosomes are called sex chromosomes.
  • The rest two chromosomes are same in female and are called X- chromosomes (XX).
  • In male the rest two chromosomes are different and are called X and Y chromosomes.
  • During reproduction females produces one type of gametes and containing 22 autosomes and one X chromosomes, while males produces two types of gametes one have 22 + X type chromosomes and other have 22+ Y types of chromosomes.
  • When a male gametes i.e. sperm carrying X chromosomes fertilizes an ova, the zygote develop into female.
  • When a sperm carrying Y chromosomes fertilizes an egg, Zygote develops into male.

Some Genetic Disorder occur due to Chromosomes:

Klinefelter Syndrome:
  • When a male have an extra X or Y chromosome in sex chromosomes then the condition will be XXY or XYY instead of XY. The individual became sterile in this condition.
  • In female when an extra X chromosomes is present instead of XY they show normal development but limited fertility, metal retardness is also seen in this type of syndrome.
Turner’s Syndrome:
  • When female has single sex chromosome (X0) their ovaries are rudimentary, lack of secondary sexual character.
Down’s Syndrome:
When an extra chromosomes is  added to 21st autosomal chromosomes this lead to develop Down’s syndrome.
Colour Blindness:
  • This disorder leads to failure to distinguish between red & green colour.
  • The gene responsible for this disease is situated on a sex chromosomes.
Patau’s Syndrome:
  • This type of syndrome is developed by an addition of autosomal chromosome in 13th chromosome.
  • There is a cut mark in the lip and person is mentally retarded.

Number of Chromosomes in Different Organisms:

S. No. Organisms No. of Chromosomes
1. Pigeon 80
2. Dog 78
3. Horse 64
4. Chimpanzee 48
5. Human 46
6. Rabbit 44
7. Cat 38
8. Frog 26
9. Pea 14
10. Tomato 24
11. Wheat 42
12. Potato 48

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BIOLOGY & GENERAL SCIENCE STUDY NOTES


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