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Dear All,

Below is a detailed analysis on how to solve profit loss questions in the QA section, along with practice examples, along with their solutions. 
This topic is important for all Banking exams like IBPS, SBI, RRB, RBI , LIC exam etc.

Important Concepts

Cost Price : 

The price at which an article is purchased, is called its cost price. It is abbreviated as C.P.

Selling Price

The price, at which an article is sold, is called its selling prices, abbreviated as S.P.

  • Profit/gain = SP – CP
  • Profit % = Profit/(C P)×100
  • S P = (100+gain % )/100  ×C P
  • C P = 100/(100+gain %)×S P
Loss
If the overall Cost Price exceeds the selling price of the buyer then he is said to have incurredloss.
  • Loss = C P – S P
  • Loss % = LOSS/(C P)×100
  • S P = (100-loss %)/100×C P
  • C P = 100/(100-loss %)×S P

Profit and Loss Based on Cost Price

To find the percent gain or loss, divide the amount gained or lost by the cost. 

Example 1: A toy that cost 80 rupees is sold at a profit of 20 rupees . Find the percent or rate of profit.
Answer: Gain / cost = % profit. / 
20 / 80 = 25%. – Answer

 To find the loss and the selling price when the cost and the percent loss are given, multiply the cost by the percent and subtract the product from the cost.

Example 2: A damaged chair that cost Rs.110 was sold at a loss of 10%. Find the loss and the selling price.
Answer: Cost x percent loss = loss.
110 x 1/10 = 11, loss.
Cost – loss = selling price.
110 – 11 = 99, selling price.

Profit and Loss Based on Selling Price

To find the profit and the cost when the selling price and the percent profit are given, multiply the selling price by the percent profit and subtract the result from the selling price.

Example 1: A toy sells for 6.00 at a profit of 25% of the selling price. Separate this selling price into cost and profit.
Answer : Selling price x % profit = profit.
Selling price = profit = cost.
6.00 x .25 = 1.50, profit.
6.00 – 1.50 = 4.50, cost.

To find the loss and the cost when the selling price and the percent loss are given, multiply the selling price by the percent loss and subtract the result from the selling price.

Example 2: At a sale, neckties selling at 50.00 are sold at a loss of 60% of selling price. What is the loss and the original cost?
Answer: Selling price x % loss = loss.
Selling price + loss = cost.
50.00 x .60 = 30.00, loss.
50.00 – 30.00 = 20.00, cost.

To find the selling price when the cost and the percent loss are given, add the percent loss to 100% and divide the cost by this sum.

Example 3: Socks that cost 7.00 per pair were sold at a loss of 25% of selling price. What was the selling price?
Answer : Cost / ( 100% + % loss ) = selling price.
7.00 / 1.25 = 5.60, selling price.

To find the selling price when the profit and the percent profit are given, or to find the selling price when the loss and the percent loss are given, divide the profit or loss by the percent profit or loss.

Note: This rule should be compared with the one under Profit and Loss Based on Cost. The two rules are exactly similar except that in one case 100% represents cost while in the other case 100% represents selling price.
Example 4: A kind of tape is selling at a profit of 12% of selling price, equal to 18 per yard. What is the selling price of the tape?
Answer : Profit / % profit = selling price.
18 /.12 = 1.50 selling price.

To find the percent profit or loss, divide the amount gained or lost by the selling price.

Example 5: A candy bar sells for 1.30 at a profit of 65. What percent of profit on selling price does this represent?
Answer : Gain / selling price = % profit.
65 / 1.30 = .5 or 50% profit.

Mark-up Price

Generally the SP is less than the marked price (MP) the difference MP – SP is known as discount, D .
Discount = M P – S P
Discount %, D%  =  ( Discount) / (M P)×100

To reduce percent loss on cost to percent loss on selling price, divide percent loss on cost by 100% minus percent loss on cost.

 Example 1: 20% loss on cost is what percent loss on selling price?
Answer : % loss on cost / ( 100% – % loss on cost ) = % loss on selling price.
0.20 / 80 = .0025 or 25% loss on selling price

To reduce percent loss on selling price to percent loss on cost, divide percent loss on selling price by 100% plus percent loss on selling price.

Example 2: 20% loss on selling price is what percent loss on cost?
Answer : % loss on selling price / ( 100% + % loss on selling price ) = % loss on cost.
.20 / 1.20 = .16666 or .16.67% loss on cost.

To reduce percent mark-up (percent profit on cost) to percent profit on selling price, divide percent mark-up by 100% plus percent mark-up.

Example 3: A coat marked up 60% carries what percent of profit on selling price?
Answer : % profit on cost / ( 100% + % profit on cost ) = % profit on selling price.
.60 / 1.60 = .375 or 37.5% on selling price.

Types of Questions

Here we are providing you all types of questions that have been  asked in Bank Exams and How to solve it easily using Grade Stack methods

Type 1: 

The cost price of 40 articles is the same as the selling price of 25 articles. Find the gain per cent.
(a) 65%
(b) 60%
(c) 15%
(d) 75%

Answer: (b)
Gain per cent =(40-25)/25×100 =15/25×100=60%

Grade Stack methods 
In Above question We take x = 40 , y = 25
Then Gain % = (x –y) x 100/ y

Type2: 

Bananas are bought at the rate of 6 for Rs. 5 and sold at the rate of 5 for Rs. 6. Profit per cent is:
(a) 36%
(b) 42%
(c) 44%
(d) 48%
Answer : (c)

To avoid fraction, let the number of bananas boughtLCM of 5 and 6 = 30
CP of 30 bananas = 5 x 5 = Rs. 25
SP of 30 Bananas = 6 x 6 = Rs. 36
Profit = Rs. (36-25) = Rs. 11
Profit % = 11/25×100=44%

Grade Stack Method
[(6 x 6 -5x 5)/ (5 x 5)] x 100 = 44%

Type 3:

A man bought oranges at the rate of 8 for Rs 34 and sold them at the rate of 12 for Rs. 57. How many oranges should be sold to earn a net profit of Rs 45?
(a) 90
(b) 100
(c) 135
(d) 150
Answers: (a)

Let the man buy 24 (LCM of 8 and 12) oranges.
C.P. of 24 oranges  = 34/8  ×24 = Rs. 102
S.P. of 24 oranges = 27/12×24=  Rs. 114
Gain = 114 – 102 = Rs. 12
Rs. 12 = 24 oranges
Rs. 45 =  24/12×45= 90 oranges

Type 4:

A shopkeeper earns a profit of 12% on selling a book at 10% discount on printed price. The ratio of the cost price to printed price of the book is ?
(a) 45 : 56
(b) 50 : 61
(c) 90 : 97
(d) 99 : 125
Answer:  (a)

C.P. of the book = Rs. x
Printed price = Rs. y
(y×90)/100=x × 112/100
x/y=90/112=45/56

Type 5:

A dealer sold two types of goods for Rs 10,000 each. On one of them, he lost 20% and on the other he gained 20%. His gain or loss per cent in the entire transaction was
(a) 2% loss
(b) 2% gain
(c) 4% gain
(d) 4% loss
Answer:  (d)
Here, S.P. is same, Hence there is always a loss. Loss per cent = (20×20)/100=4%

Aimsuccess Trick
Loss % = (n^2)/100= (20)^2/100= 4%
Where n= 20

Type 6:

On selling an article for Rs170, a shopkeeper loses 15%. In order to gain 20%, he must sell that article at rupees:
(a) 215.50
(b) 212.50
(c) 240
(d) 210
Answer: (c)
C.P. of article = (200×120)/100 = Rs. 240

Type 7:

An article is sold at a loss of 10%. Had it been sold for Rs. 9 more, there would have been a gain of 12 1/2% on it. The cost price of the article is
(a) Rs. 40
(b) Rs. 45
(c) Rs. 50
(d) Rs. 35
Answers: (a)

Let the cost price of the article = Rs. x
S.P. at 10% loss = x×90/100 = Rs. 9x
  • P. at 12 1/2 % gain

x  × (100+12 1/2)/100 = Rs. 225x/200
According to the question, 9x + 9 = 225x/200
180x + 1800 = 225x
x = Rs. 40

Grade Stack Method                               
If sign is not same then, we have to Add
If sign is same then, we have to Subtract
Here,
– 10 %                   + 12 ½
22 ½%  = 9%
100 % = ?
Formula = (n x 100 )/ (difference of loss % or Gain)
Note : where n= 9

Type 8:

A sells a suitcase to B at 10% profit. B sells it to C at 30% profit. If C pays Rs 2860 for it, then the price at which a bought it is
(a) 1000
(b) 1600
(c) 2000
(d) 2500
Answer:  (c)

If the C.P. of the suitcase for A be Rs. x, then
x ×110/100×130/100=2860
x=(2860×100×100)/(110×130) = Rs. 2000

Type 9:

Arun marks up the computer he is selling by 20% profit and sells them at a discount of 15%. Arun’s net gain percent is
(a) 4
(b) 2
(c) 3.5
(d) 2.5
Answer: (b)

AIMSUCCESS method:
r1 = 20 , r2 = 15
Formula = r1 – r2 – (r1 x r2)/100
(20-15-(20×15)/100)
= 20 -18 = 2%
Type 10:

A tradesman sold an article at a loss of 20%. If the selling price had been increased by Rs. 100, there would have been a gain of 5%. The cost price of the article was:
(a) Rs. 200
(b) Rs. 25
(c) Rs. 400
(d) Rs. 250
Answer: (c)

Let the C.P. of article be Rs. x.
105% of x – 80% of x = Rx. 100
25% of x = Rx. 100
x = Rs. (100×100)/25
= Rs. 400



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